Most reggae songs contain caustic social comments, but they also praise Ras Tafari, Jamaican heroes, freedom, and ganja Barrett, 1977; Chevannes, 1977. The major cults of this type are Haitian vodou, Cuban Santer ía, and Trinidadian Shango. Many of the brethren gather in small, informal bodies and are not affiliated with organized groups. It is believed also that neglect of one's lwa will result in sickness, the death of relatives, crop failure, and other misfortunes Simpson, 1980. Simpson's Ideas about Ultimate Reality and Meaning in Haitian Vodun. At the end of the eighteenth century, they were deported by the English to Roatan, an island in the Gulf of Honduras, and later they spread out along the coast of the mainland.
Once a nativistic movement, Convince has so declined since the 1950s that it now provides mainly jollification and catharsis. A number of arose from the interaction of three major variables: socioeconomic, psychological, and cultural. Later, the spirits of the ancestors that is, devotees possessed by the ghosts dance. The functional lwa include Legba, the Fon guardian of crossroads and all barriers; the Ogou Yor. Many instances of spirit possession during a given cermony indicate that the orishas have been well fed and are satisfied with the ritual offerings. Cuban Santer ía Most of the non-European elements in the Afro-Cuban syncretic religion known as Santer ía are derived from Yoruba beliefs and rituals.
All zombies are invoked through drumming and singing. Afro-Caribbean Afro-Caribbeans are Caribbean people who trace their heritage to Africa in the period since Christopher Columbus's arrival in the region in 1492. For example, Ogun, the god of iron and war, is believed to prefer the colors red and white also the favorite colors of Shango , and rams and roosters are his preferred offerings. Du Bois to Frantz Fanon, Colin Powell and Bob Marley. According to Donald Hogg 1960 , such traits as blood sacrifice, vigorous possession-trance behavior, the materialistic purposes of ceremonies, the involvement with divination and conjuring, religious dancing, the worship of ancestral spirits, and the propitiation of potentially malevolent beings almost certainly have African antecedents.
World Christian Encyclopedia: A Comparative Study of Churches and Religions in the Modern World, ad 1900 —2000. In these respects Convince, like Kumina, shows greater African influence than do the Revival Zion, Pocomania, and Rastafarian cults in Jamaica. The marassa, spirits of dead twins, are believed to be the twin saints Cosmas and Damian Price-Mars, 1928; Herskovits, 1937a. The relationship between vodou adherents and the lwa is thought to be a contractual one; if one is punctilious about offerings and ceremonies, the lwa will be generous with their aid. Most Kromanti Dance ceremonies require the sacrifice of an animal to the pakit ancestral spirit of the fete-man ritual specialist.
Los bailes y el teatro de los negros en el folklore de Cuba. Popular interest in separatist churches, as well as in regular missions, was stimulated by the Great Revival which swept over the island in 1861 —1862, but the enthusiasm dwindled within a short time. Each Shango cult center holds an annual ceremony in honor of the orisha known to its worshipers. The Ras Tafari Movement in Kingston, Jamaica. Rent and wage disputes between planters and workers were common after the abolition of apprenticeship in 1838.
Ogou Ferraille is equated with Saint James; while Ogou Balanjo, the healer, is associated with , who is pictured holding a child whom he blesses with an upraised hand. Adherents of Revival Zion and the related sects of Revival and Pocomania do not identify old African gods with Christian saints as do participants in vodou Haiti , Santer ía Cuba , and Shango Brazil, Trinidad, Grenada. Ancestral Cults The second type of hybrid religious cult in the Caribbean, called the ancestral cult, has fewer African and more European components than does the neo-African-type religion. Rigaud, 1953; M étraux, 1959. In Shango, as in vodou and Santer ía, participants can recognize the major spirits who are well known throughout the country, or the principal spirits known in a given locality, by the stylized behavior of devotees possessed by them Bourguignon, 1980. It is thought that the lwa like blood and that animal sacrifices are the means by which favors may be obtained.
Specifically, in 1492, , an African-Spanish seafarer, was recorded as piloting one of Columbus' ships. Rastafarian culture has spread to other parts of the Caribbean, and Rastafarian art, poetry, music, and philosophy are well known in London, Paris, and other cities in and the United States. Prominent among the nature spirits are Dambala, the serpent spirit identified with the rainbow and associated with floods; Bade, spirit of the winds; Sogbo, a Fon spirit of thunder; Shango Yor. The lucumis Afro-Cubans of Yoruba extraction honor each of the gods with choral dances and pantomime in accordance with authentic Yoruba tradition see Ortiz, 1951, for a detailed and vivid account of lucumi dances; and Simpson, 1978. Each bongo man holds a sacrificial ceremony annually and conducts Convince rites as the need for them arises.
They see no inconsistency between their Christian faith and non-Christian beliefs. The possesses followers during revivalist ceremonies, as do the spirits of figures such as Jeremiah, Isaiah, Joshua, Moses, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego; apostles and evangelists such as Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Peter, and James; the archangels Michael, Gabriel and Raphael; Satan and his chief assistant, Rutibel; beings from Hebrew magical tradition, such as Uriel, Ariel, Seraph, Nathaniel, and Tharsis; Constantine, Melshezdek, and the Royal Angel; and the dead, especially prominent revivalist leaders of the past Moore and Simpson, 1957; Simpson, 1978. You can complete the definition of afro-caribbean given by the English Definition dictionary with other English dictionaries: Wikipedia, Lexilogos, Oxford, Cambridge, Chambers Harrap, Wordreference, Collins Lexibase dictionaries, Merriam Webster. After Eshu's ejection, the worshipers invite other powers to the ceremony by drumming the powers' favorite rhythms. Singing, drumming, and dancing are intended to placate the ancestors of the family giving the ceremony, and some participants become possessed by the spirits of their deceased ancestors, as occurs in Kumina and Convince in Jamaica, the Big Drum in Grenada and Carriacou, and Kele in Saint Lucia.
Neo-African Cults These cults developed during the early stages of cultural contact between persons of European and African origin, because members of the subordinate group could neither acquire the religion of the dominant group nor participate as comembers in the historic Christian denominations. Although in recent years Santer ía has declined in Cuba, the presence of Cuban refugees has stimulated the worship of Shango and the other Yoruba orisha in the. The confusions and contradictions in the beliefs about these beings are due in part to contradictions in the Fon religious system that the Haitians adopted, and in part to the merging of the Fon system with that of the Yoruba Courlander, 1960. . Most Kumina dances are memorial services held to pay respects to the dead ancestors of the participants, but ceremonies are performed on other occasions, such as betrothal, marriage, burial, the naming of a baby, the anniversary of emancipation, and Moore, 1953; Schuler, 1980.
Various reasons are given for organizing a festival: to counter the ill health or misfortune of a friend or relative, to dedicate a tombstone for a deceased family member, to start a critically important undertaking, or to launch the marriage preparations of a son or daughter. Sacrifices of food and drink are offered periodically to the spirits of the ancestors; some offerings are taken out to sea and thrown into the water. In many areas of the , however, a number of hybrid religions have attracted large numbers of followers. They were pre-eminent in creating new cultural forms such as , and within the Caribbean. Columbus was originally attempting to reach the country of Indian by heading west instead of heading east. Kumina ritual ends with the sacrifice of a goat and the dance of the Queen of the Kumina and her attendants.