They could not vote or take part in the government. Women could not participate in government. This trade was made easier by the invention of coins by a neighboring society known as Lydia. Political thinkers and philosophers flourished. Therefore, , slaves, and resident foreigners metoikoi were excluded from the political process.
Athens from Alexander to Antony. The courts became in effect a kind of upper house. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Then it was conquered by Alexander and etcetera etcetera. Parents trained their children to prepare for these responsibilities.
It is hard to know exactly how many slaves lived in Athens, but it is estimated that the free and slave populations were almost equal in size. In a group, one person is more likely to know the right way to do things and those that do not may learn from those that do. To prevent armed conflict, the Athenian leader Solon introduced four levels of society: pentakosiomedimnoi, hippeis, zeugitai, and thetes. A city-state was a major city and the surrounding areas. On the other hand, to get the support of the people, tyrants often did help people.
This feeling was especially evidenced in the demonizing of the Persian kings and , the tyrants par excellence. As time went on, there were probably over a thousand city-states established on the Greek peninsula, possibly even more. Under the 4th century version of democracy, the roles of general and of key political speaker in the assembly tended to be filled by different persons. Archons were rulers, at first serving alone but later in groups, who were elected to rule Athens for one year. The most famous of oligarchy was the city state of Sparta which was ruled by two kings at the same time. The rise of the American system of government took a great deal of inspiration from what was achieved in Athens and other cities of the time. No one, so long as he has it in him to be of service to the state, is kept in political obscurity because of poverty.
The officials of the democracy were in part elected by the Assembly and in large part chosen by lottery in a process called. Furthermore, all citizens selected were reviewed before taking up office dokimasia at which time they might be disqualified. There were five hundred one to one thousand five hundred juries chosen by a lottery. Of course it is a lot easier to have a democratic government when you are only deciding what other people should do. But whether democracy depended on this extra time is impossible to say. The course offers over nine hours of content that provides principles of how to access and understand New Testament Greek.
And this democracy didn't exactly function like any nation you think of today. In addition to this unlawful injustice, the demos later on regretted the decision and decided that they had been misled. The Boule was made up of Citizens chosen by a lottery. They marched together as a unit known as a phalanx rather than simply going at the enemy one-on-one. Athens was the first city-state to have a true and efficient form of democracy. In opposition, thinkers such as were worried about the ignorance of a democratic decision-making body.
Although citizens gained more influence during this time, not everybody was a citizen. Aristotle points to other cities that adopted governments in the democratic style. At the same time or soon afterwards, the membership of the Areopagus was extended to the lower level of the propertied citizenship. Thus, the who met in Philadelphia in 1787, did not set up a Council of the Areopagos, but a , that, eventually, met on the. A case can be made that discriminatory lines came to be drawn more sharply under Athenian democracy than before or elsewhere, in particular in relation to women and slaves, as well as in the line between citizens and non-citizens. Spartan kings could, however, be put on trial and even exiled.
The system showed a marked anti-professionalism. The Assembly included citizens who paid their taxes. They debated the importance of concepts like sovereignty, the rule of law, the constitution, the role of officials and the role of citizens within their communities. However, the social structure of the city state was hierarchical, birth and gender being the determining factors in this hierarchy. The alphabet, literacy and most of our language can be traced back to Greek origins. Each city-state had its own rule and government.