They often work with patients in health-care facilities, designing nutrition plans to prevent and treat diseases. Instead of three fatty acids attached, however, there are two fatty acids and the third carbon of the glycerol backbone is bound to a phosphate group. Both structures are held in shape by hydrogen bonds. In this laboratory exercise, a crude cell extract is prepared from potatoes. Carbohydrates are, in fact, an essential part of our diet; grains, fruits, and vegetables are all natural sources of carbohydrates.
Bio 113 Biological Molecules of Life Lab Report Biological Molecules of Life Jessica Leonard Biology Lab April 5, 2012 Abstract This lab was done to test for macromolecules consisting of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids by using specific reagents to test for each. In addition, they may contain hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and additional minor elements. For each cytochrome c molecule that has been sequenced to date from different organisms, 37 of these amino acids appear in the same position in each cytochrome c. It is a simple mono-saccharides. They carry the genetic blueprint of a cell and carry instructions for the functioning of the cell. Unsaturated fats or oils are usually of plant origin and contain unsaturated fatty acids. Starch reacted to iodine along with the potato proving starch present.
They are referred to as fats or triglycerides. Cellulases can break down cellulose into glucose monomers that can be used as an energy source by the animal. The cell walls of plants are mostly made of cellulose, which provides structural support to the cell. Upon completion of this activity, students will: Describe the diversity of insects collected in one location. The resulting bond is the peptide bond. Those who pursue careers in dietetics take courses in nutrition, chemistry, biochemistry, biology, microbiology, and human physiology. Some sources of errors in the lab might have stemmed from our mistake in not able to determine the difference in colors correctly because it is too faint or it did not turn fully to the expected color or contamination that might have occurred from not cleaning the utilities and using different substance with different disposable pipets accidentally.
Examples of animal waxes include beeswax and lanolin. Glucose: a sugar that occurs in different forms such as fruits and fluids Lipids: organic compounds made of hydrogen, carbon, and little oxygen Protein: large, complex polymer that's essential to life made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and some sulfur Starch: white, tasteless, solid that occurs in rice, corn, wheat, beans, potatoes, and other vegetables Glucose,lipids,proteins and starches are all determined by various tests. When human and rhesus monkey sequences were compared, a single difference was found in one amino acid. On comparing the human and chimpanzee protein sequences, no sequence difference was found. What facts support your answer in question 1 of the post lab analysis? Benedict's solution acts as a n indicator to glucose and turns the solution to a color red when it is heated and has glucose in them. Onions do not have starch and potatoes do. All steroids have four, linked carbon rings and several of them, like cholesterol, have a short tail.
The cells can then absorb the glucose. Lipids are a class of macromolecules that are nonpolar and hydrophobic in nature. During the hydrogenation process, the orientation around the double bonds is changed, making a trans-fat from a cis-fat. The third lab for carbohydrates consisted of cleaning four test tubes and labeling them 1 through 4. For starch, iodine was used as a reagent.
Below: The test solutions and Benedict's reagent are boiled in a water bath for five minutes. This structure is caused by chemical interactions between various amino acids and regions of the polypeptide. Any of the hydrogen atoms could be replaced with another carbon atom covalently bonded to the first carbon atom. This reaction is specific for compounds with more than two peptide bonds. Saturated fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen; in other words, the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton is maximized. Water: none because there is nothing in the water. Lactose is a disaccharide consisting of the monomers glucose and galactose.
The phosphate group is modified by the addition of an alcohol. Every other glucose monomer in cellulose is flipped over and packed tightly as extended long chains. Each nitrogenous base in a nucleotide is attached to a sugar molecule, which is attached to a phosphate group. Test tubes were removed and any color change was recorded for each in table 5. Potato: starch because potato it provides energy and is a carbohydrate. The nitrogenous bases are stacked in the interior, like the steps of a staircase, and these bases pair; the pairs are bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
The four covalent bonding positions of the carbon atom can give rise to a wide diversity of compounds with many functions, accounting for the importance of carbon in living things. It is the bonding properties of carbon atoms that are responsible for its important role. They also provide insulation for the body. Dietitians may also work in nursing homes, schools, and private practices. The starch that is consumed by animals is broken down into smaller molecules, such as glucose. Polysaccharides may be very large molecules. Unsaturated fats help to improve blood cholesterol levels, whereas saturated fats contribute to plaque formation in the arteries, which increases the risk of a heart attack.
Plants synthesize glucose using carbon dioxide and water by the process of photosynthesis, and the glucose, in turn, is used for the energy requirements of the plant. It is a polysaccharides that are joined by many glucose units. Also, tested was an onion and potato. Sucrose, lactose, and maltose are disaccharides. Explain why molecular reason polysaccharides do not give a positive reaction for reducing sugars? Do you see a stain oil for the below samples.