The cold during the night of 29 January became most severe; and early in the morning of the 30th the Swedish king gave the order to start, the horsemen dismounting on the weaker spots of ice and cautiously leading their horses as far apart as possible, until they swung into their saddles again, closed their ranks and made a dash for the shore. On 12 February, Charles X Gustav signed his : His son, , was still a minor, and Charles X Gustav appointed a minor regency consisting of six relatives and close friends. However, he accepted the advice of his chief engineer officer , who acted as pioneer throughout and chose the more circuitous route from Svendborg, by the islands of , and , in preference to the direct route from Nyborg to Korsør, which would have had to cross a broad, almost uninterrupted expanse of ice. On 17 July he again landed on Zealand and besieged Copenhagen with its king , but and managed to hold out long enough for the Dutch fleet under Lieutenant-Admiral to relieve the city, defeating the Swedish fleet in the on 29 October 1658. In the middle of December 1657 began the great frost, which would prove so fatal to Denmark. The Swedes, however, still carried on the thirty years' war in Germany, and Prince in 1642 entered the Swedish army, and served with distinction under Torstenson. Swedish kings 1560—1568 and 1604—1611 gave themselves numerals after studying of Sweden.
A History of Swedish literature. Peter the Great: His Life and World. The which assembled at in March 1655, duly considered the two great pressing national questions: war, and the restitution of the alienated crown lands. Fate also intervened, as the king died in early 1660. On 28 January 1658, Charles X arrived at in South Jutland. The fall of Kraków followed a capitulation of the Polish Royal armies, but before the end of the year a reaction began in Poland herself. A great number of Polish nobles and their personal armies joined the Swedes, including the majority of the famous Winged Hussars.
Although there were many people around the king at the time of his death, there were no witnesses to the actual moment he was struck. He began his reign by abolishing censorship and by granting a broad amnesty to political prisoners. By the time war was declared he had at his disposal 50,000 men and 50 warships. In 1648 he was appointed generalissimo of the Swedish forces in. However, Charles X continued the war efforts against Denmark after a held at on 7 July, even though he was in defiance of international equity. In the Riksdag Parliament of 1655 he imposed the Reduction, by which the nobles were obliged to return to the crown certain endowed lands and either to pay an annual fee or to surrender one-quarter of the crown lands they had acquired since 1633.
From 1646 to 1648 he frequented the Swedish court, supposedly as a prospective husband of his cousin the queen regnant, Christina of Sweden 1626—89, reigned 1632—54 , but her insurmountable objection to wedlock put an end to these anticipations, and to compensate her cousin for a broken half-promise she declared him her successor in 1649, despite the opposition of the headed by. The definitive circumstances around Charles's death are unclear however. After the ultras gained control of the Chamber of Deputies in November 1820, Artois's political role steadily increased as he influenced legislation, foreign affairs, and the appointment of ministers. Bethune 1848 and Charles Harrison-Wallace 1998 and a comment by the latter. In his conversations with Löwen, he also stated that he did not lack taste for beautiful women, but that he held in his sexual desires for fear that they would get out of control if unchecked, and that if he committed to something like that, it would be forever. Russia had opened their part of the war by invading the Swedish-held territories of and. Even so she owes her natural frontiers in the Scandinavian peninsula to Charles X.
Even the king wavered; but when Dahlberg persisted in his opinion, Charles overruled the objections of the commanders. Voltaire portrays the Swedish king in a positive light, against the brutal nature of. He learnt the art of war under the great , being present at the second battle of and at Jankowitz. Following Christina's coronation in 1650, Charles spent most of his time on his estates on Öland. Mai 1660 für Karl X. The remainder of the army surrendered days later at under Lewenhaupt's command, most of them including Lewenhaupt himself spending the rest of their days in Russian captivity. Family Charles X had one legitimate child by : his successor 1655—1697, reigned 1660—1697.
After five years away, Charles arrived in Sweden to find his homeland at war with Russia, Saxony, Hannover, Great Britain and Denmark. In his youth he was particularly encouraged to find a suitable spouse in order to secure the succession, but he would frequently avoid the subject of sex and marriage. He led Sweden during the , enlarging the Swedish Empire. Charles, after concluding a truce with Russia 1658 , began to negotiate for a general peace. The war question was decided in three days by a secret committee presided over by the king, who easily persuaded the delegates that a war with was necessary and might prove very advantageous; but the consideration of the question of the subsidies due to the crown for military purposes was postponed to the following Riksdag see : History. He was hoping to secure a future ally against Denmark. The conclusion of the treaties of in October 1648 prevented him from winning the military laurels he is said to have desired, but as the Swedish plenipotentiary at the executive congress of , he had an opportunity to learn diplomacy, a science he is described as having quickly mastered.
In the middle of December 1657 began the great which was to be so fatal to Denmark. It reads Was sorget Ihr doch? As his duchy of required a male heir, Charles was succeeded as ruler there by his cousin. Still more ominously for the Swedes, the elector of Brandenburg, perceiving Sweden's difficulties, joined the league against Sweden and compelled Charles to accept the proffered mediation of , and. The Treaty of Roskilde 1658 cost Denmark all of its territories in southern Sweden Sk åne and Blekinge , plus Bohusl än on the Norwegian border, the island of Bornholm, and Trondheimsl än in Norway. He purposed to extend the boundaries of Sweden from the gulf of Finland and to the ; and according to the reports of the French ambassador, he cherished designs still more vast: when he had made himself master of the north, he would, like a second Alaric, descend upon Italy with a great army and navy, and bring Rome again under the power of the Goths. So serious, indeed, were the difficulties of Charles X.
The Swedish king 1604—1611 chose his numeral after studying a fictitious history of Sweden. An exploit unique in history had been achieved. The 1859 exhumation found that the wound was in accordance with a shot from the Norwegian fort. In July an offensive and defensive alliance was concluded between Denmark and Poland. By the Treaty of Copenhagen 1660 Sweden regained its four southern provinces from Denmark, and by the Treaty of Kardis 1661 with Russia the two countries returned to the prewar status quo. God and I live still. Without warning, Denmark was attacked a second time.