The Confederate forces had placed artillery guns on the banks of the river and opened fire on the approaching Union gunboats. They told of troop movements, numbers of soldiers, and the conditions of the enemy army. He had been a Congressman in the 1850s and knew the inner workings and social life of the city intimately. Local loyal fishermen also gathered information about Union boats' cargoes and destinations as they sold fish to the Yankees. She applied for and received a government pension based on her first husband's military service in June 1893. For example in 1862 Pinkerton estimated that the Confederate army facing the Army of the Potomac had 150,000 men. Her second husband enlisted in the Confederate army at her urging, and, when he left for duty, she raised a regiment for him to command.
Supposedly, this story fueled Emma to cut her long hair, run away from home, and start living as Frank in the United States. With the onset of winter, the navigation routes were blocked by ice, so they traveled by sleigh through a bleak and frozen landscape. Pye, female detective who is charged with examining the persons of ladies passing out on that road came to my headquarters and handed me her instructions to read which I did and then told her I was in command of the guard and held responsible for the line. Henson managed to get Confederate generals to confide in him, giving him information that helped General Ulysses Grant win several battles including the Battle of Vicksburg. In the Official Records of both armies there are thousands of pages of correspondence, orders of inquiry and arrest, mostly about civilian spies. Harriet Tubman 1822-1913 , who is best known for being one of the primary operators of the Underground Railroad, worked as a spy for the Union Army.
She eavesdropped on conversations the Union officers staying at the hotel conducted about military affairs, and learned enough to inform General Stonewall Jackson about their regiment and activities. She was a spy for the Confederacy during the Civil War. Then, in the next scene, Butler is recruiting Elizabeth to be a spy for the Union. Both governments also recruited and organized their own spy rings to infiltrate and report on enemy activity. Miot and moved to South Carolina.
As soldiers caught on to the activities of these women spies, it became harder and harder for them to cross enemy lines without getting searched or apprehended. Both sides heavily employed spies and made great use of espionage during the war. She also became the first woman in the U. As the Union had no centralized military intelligence agency, individual generals took charge of intelligence gathering for their own operations. By the end of the 1850s personal ads had established the practice of sending anonymous coded messages under false names.
They often changed routes, to ensure they were not followed. Civil War Spies Infiltrate Maryland Secessionist Group Meanwhile another secessionist group called the National Volunteers met every night in Washington D. The women were either above suspicion, in the case of somebody like Elizabeth Van Lew, or below suspicion, in the case of somebody like Mary Jane Bowser. Colonel Stone took the list placed it in his desk drawer and locked it. Mary Kate smuggled boots, blankets, almost anything needed by the Confederate army through the lines, concealing substantial quantities of quinine and morphine in her voluminous riding habits.
This changing perception of gender roles made intelligence gathering much more dangerous for females, especially those serving undercover. Many agents operated under several different names. For a woman, spying was tantamount to prostitution. In April 1861, field headquarters for the Pinkerton Agency were set up in downtown Cincinnati, where General George B. The closet thing to any official spy agency in the Union was who founded the Pinkerton Detective Agency.
Fearing detection, details of their activities were never committed to paper; countless incidents involved only three or four people, who never revealed their secrets. Your wife cannot go by flag of truce. With mail and other items combined, Pigott sometimes carried as much as thirty pounds of hidden goods. Late in the war, many heartbreaking stories were contained in a few lines of type in the personals. As president, Johnson aggressively fought any Republican effort to create civil rights or economic opportunities for 4 million newly freed black people in the South and pardoned many of the Confederate officials. Since the Civil War took place in the south, Union spies often had to travel across enemy lines in dangerous reconnaissance trips in order to gather valuable information. The information wasn't communicated very well or passed on to the people who really needed it.
Suspicion hounds her until she barely even trusts herself. He obviously underestimated Miss Ratcliffe, who walked on foot across muddy fields to reach the home of her cousin George Coleman to ask him to warn Mosby. Civil War Spies American Civil War spies were some of the most interesting characters of the war, and there were many different individuals, on both sides, who had their own impacts on the conflict. In the spring of 1861, Letcher assigned Thomas Jordan to recruit Greenhow, who accepted the job enthusiastically. Pinkerton called his intelligence agency the secret service, but it was in no way affiliated with the current secret service, which was formed at the end of the war.
Another Confederate operation unfolded on Lake Erie the following year. Lottie Moon left Union General Ambrose Burnside at the altar, but he latter imprisoned her for several months for spying. For years, Van Lew relied on a local seamstress and her paid African American employees, including Mary Jane Bowser, a well-educated 21-year-old who posed as an illiterate enslaved woman inside the Confederate White House in Richmond and gathered critical intelligence. He acknowledged his great debt to her in his memoirs. She was said to have led a raid on Summersville in July 1861, at age 18. Richard Hall, in Patriots in Disguise see bibliography , takes a hard look at The Woman in Battleand analyzes whether its claims are accurate history or largely fictionalized. The plan consisted of a surprise attack on the Confederates while they slept with the aim of proceeding to St.