After this the letters were read which were written to him by the most holy and most reverend bishop of the Church of Alexandria, Cyril, which the Holy Synod approved as being orthodox and without fault orqws kai alhptws ekein , and in no point out of agreement either with the divinely inspired Scriptures, or with the faith banded down and set forth in the great synod of holy Fathers, which assembled 238 sometime ago at Nice in Bithynia, as your holiness also rightly having examined this has given witness. For he remains what he is always and never changes, nor could he ever change or be susceptible of it. It is therefore incorrect, they reasoned, to say that God was born, suffered, and died. For the one and only Christ is not dual, even though he be considered to be from two distinct realities, brought together into an unbreakable union. I shall begin from the wise utterances of your reverence, setting them down word for word.
But he held that our Lord as man was bound and united with God only by a communion of dignity. I also applaud your statement that God the Word needed no second generation from a woman, and your confession that the godhead is incapable of suffering. How far this interpretation was from being that of the Council of Chalcedon is evinced by the fact that it immediately declared that St. We all agreed, as did the most religious bishops Valerian and Amphilochius and all the pious bishops of the provinces of Pamphylia and Lycaonia, that what had been inscribed in the synodical document should be confirmed and in no way disobeyed, clearly without prejudice to the acts of Alexandria. To this day, several Churches that adopted the Council of Chalcedon refer to it the same, but several Orthodox Churches refute that.
For there is one Lord Jesus Christ, according to the scriptures. But we do not call the Word of God the Father, the God nor the Lord of Christ, lest we openly cut in two the one Christ, the Son and Lord, and fall under the charge of blasphemy, making him the God and Lord of himself. None of the reverent bishops is to take possession of another province which has not been under his authority from the first or under that of his predecessors. That only constant prayer could drive out this demon. Found in all the Concilia in Greek with Latin Versions. To Celestine the new Paul! When we had gathered together in accordance with the pious decree in the metropolis of Ephesus, some separated themselves from us, a little more than thirty in number. Be this as it may, Nestorianism is clearly subversive of the whole Catholic Doctrine of the Incarnation, and therefore the importance of the word Qeotokos cannot be exaggerated.
Consequently as man, and with regard to the measure of his humiliation, it is said that he is equally with us subject to God; thus he became under the Law, although as God he spake the Law and was the Law-giver. To the performing of which we have no doubt that your holiness will assent when it is seen that what has been decreed is for the security of the whole church. He had replied that he would come if he chose. The heading is that found in the ordinary Greek texts. In the letter, Leo I referred to his dogmatic letter to Flavian, the , which he intended the council to accept as a ruling of faith.
When the most pious and religious bishops, Valerian and Amphilochius had come to us, they proposed that we should consider in common the case of the Messalians, that is the Euchetes or Enthusiasts, who were flourishing in Pamphylia, or by what other name this most contaminating heresy is called. Here is the story of that conflict between saints and sinners put forth in dramatic detail. But since some pretend to confess and accept it, while at the same time distorting the force of its expressions to their own opinion and so evading the truth, being sons of error and children of destruction, it has proved necessary to add testimonies from the holy and orthodox fathers that can fill out the meaning they have given to the words and their courage in proclaiming it. Light-foot very aptly compares the following from Melito. Most Eastern bishops were at odds with Cyril throughout the whole council and were not reconciled until after the proceedings. All the expressions, therefore, that occur in the gospels are to be referred to one person, the one enfleshed hypostasis of the Word. The emperor was anxious for the presence of the most of the whole world, , and sent a special messenger to that great man with a letter in honourable terms.
Cyril and Memnon presented a written protest against the conciliabulum of. The Holy Synod said: Since Arcadius and Projectus the most reverend and most religious bishops and legates and Philip, the presbyter and legate of the Apostolic See, have said that they are of the same mind with us, it only remains, that they redeem their promises and confirm the acts with their signatures, and then let the minutes of the acts be shewn to them. Norman Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary Messianism in Medieval and Reformation Europe and Its Bearing on Modern Totalitarian Movements, 2d ed. No one knows who gave names to the anonymous Gospels. Pelagius's doctrines may be briefly stated thus. The same rule shall be observed in the other dioceses and provinces everywhere, so that none of the God beloved Bishops shall assume control of any province which has not heretofore, from the very beginning, been under his own hand or that of his predecessors.
Arcadius the most reverend bishop and legate, said: Although our sailing was slow, and contrary winds hindered us especially, so that we did not know whether we should arrive at the destined place, as we had hoped, nevertheless by God's good providence. But if we claim that the holy body of our common saviour Christ is born from heaven and was not of her, why should she still be considered God-bearer? Candidian now wished that no member of either synodal party should officiate, but only the ordinary clergy of the city; but Memnon declared that he would in no way submit to John and his synod, and Cyril and his adherents held divine service. Then they build on that foundation the tradition of the incarnation and resurrection and passion. The tone of the latter epistle and of the instructions given to the imperial commander, Count Candidian, to be absolutely impartial, are ascribed by the Coptic Acts to the influence exercised on the emperor by the Abbot Victor, who had been sent to Constantinople by Cyril to act as his agent at the Court on account of the veneration and friendship which Theodosius was known to feel for the holy man. Unfortunately for Nestorius, the question had already been settled by Pope Celestine and only needed to be confirmed by the assembly to be enforced. We do not permit anyone in any way to upset the defined faith or the creed drawn up by the holy fathers who assembled at Nicaea as the times demanded.
When the Eastern bishops more sympathetic to Nestorius arrived and learned that the council summoned by Emperor had been started without them, they set up a rival synod under and excommunicated Memnon, bishop of Ephesus, along with Cyril. For if the body is of another, to him also must the sufferings be ascribed. For he crushed the hopes of Cyril by suddenly taking the side of the new heresy. Let us, therefore, see how they defended the Faith, remembering that every time a Catholic today prays the Hail Mary, he echoes, whether he is conscious of the fact or not, the enthusiasm of Ephesus in 431. To a third summons he gave no answer. Finally, what of the Latin source quoted by Gry in his footnote? Eighteen Italian bishops, who had followed the Pope in his former decision of a twelve month before, refused to change their minds at his bidding now, and were accordingly deposed, among them Julian of Eclanum.