Class conflict The struggle between competing classes, specifically between the class that owns the means of production and the class or classes that do not. Merton believes that there are 5 situations facing an actor. Hunting and gathering societies Societies that obtain food by hunting animals, fishing, and gathering fruits, nuts, and grains. Pastoral societies Societies in which the raising and herding of animals such as sheep, goats, and cows is the primary means of subsistence. Dominant status One social position that overshadows the other social positions an individual occupies.
Ecosystem A system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with its environment. Manifest are the obvious and intended consequences a structural feature displays in the maintenance of the steady state of the system of which it is a part. Shozan shibano aspects of dysfunctions. Functionalist theorists argue that religion takes different forms in apparently secular societies: it is more individualized, less tied to religious institutions. Term Media Monitoring: Conflict View Definition Interest groups monitoring media content. Sanction A social reward or punishment for approved or disapproved behavior; can be positive or negative, formal or informal. Cohort Persons who share something in common, usually being born in the same year or time period.
Sex The biological distinction of being male or female. Mass hysteria Widely felt fear and anxiety. Perceptions of society reflected the failings of a selfish human nature rather than the perfection of God. Education The process, in school or beyond, of transmitting a society's knowledge, skills, values, and behaviors. Internalization The process of taking social norms, roles, and values into one's own mind.
Perhaps Spencer's greatest obstacle that is being widely discussed in modern sociology is the fact that much of his is rooted in the social and historical context of. Toward a General Theory of Action. Total institution A place where people spend 24 hours of every day for an extended part of their lives, cut off from the rest of society and tightly controlled by the people in charge. Rank Place in a social hierarchy. Differentiation, functional The division of labor or of social roles within a society or an organization. Merton appeared interested in sharpening the conceptual tools to be employed in a. Authority Power regarded as legitimate.
These more complicated areas are where sociologists place their attention when they talk about functions. Unsourced material may be challenged and. Theory Z A form of organizational culture that values long-term employment, trust, and close personal relationships between workers and managers. Invention An innovation in material or nonmaterial culture, often produced by combining existing cultural elements in new ways; a source of cultural change. Auguste Comte and positivism : the essential writings.
Looking-glass self The sense of self an individual derives from the way others view and treat him or her. Culturally, it refers to the global spread and integration of ideas, values, , behaviors, and ways of life. The sociologist analyzes the interrelated functions within a society in the same manner as the physiologist studies the various organs of the human body acting as a complete system. In terms of the economy, globalization refers to the expansion of capitalism to include all places around the world into one. This approach looks at society through a macro-level orientation, which is a broad focus on the social structures that shape society as a whole, and believes that society has evolved like organisms. Conformity Going along with the norms or behaviors of a group.
Culture pattern theory In the sociology of sport, a theory that explains aggression and violence in sport as learned behavior that mirrors the degree of aggression and violence in the society. . It is the earliest detectable stage of cardiovascular disease. Just as the structural parts of the human body — the skeleton, muscles, and various internal organs — function independently to help the entire organism survive, social structures work together to preserve society. Mode The value that occurs most often in a series of mathematical values. Term Which perspective contends that the mass media stereotype and misrepresent social reality? Lobbying The process of trying to influence political decisions so they will be favorable to one's interests and goals. Herbert Spencer : a renewed appreciation.
Marriage A social institution that recognizes and approves the sexual union of two or more individuals and includes a set of mutual rights and obligations. Cultural relativism The view that the customs and ideas of a society must be viewed within the context of that society. Merton, through his critique of functional unity, introduced into functionalism an explicit analysis of tension and conflict. Structural change Demographic, economic, and rank-order changes in a society. Term Stereotypes Definition Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group. As has been shown above, Merton addressed this limitation through his concept of deviance, and so it can be seen that functionalism allows for agency. Economic growth An increase in the amount of goods and services produced with the same amount of labor and resources.
Property The rights and obligations a group or individual has in relation to an object, resource, or activity. Social categories Groups of people who may not interact but who share certain social characteristics or statuses. Social relations of production The organization of economic life on the basis of owning or not owning the means of production, purchasing or selling labor power, and controlling or not controlling other people's labor power. This means that the institutions that currently exist are not indispensable to society. Groupthink The tendency of individuals to follow the ideas or actions of a group.