Not only did they persist in their policy after his absolution, but they took the more decided step of setting up a rival ruler in the person of at in March 1077. Studies on the general background include Margaret Deanesly, A History of the Medieval Church, 590-1500 1925; 8th ed. With the help of 300 Norman knights sent by , Hildebrand personally led the conquest of the castle of , where Benedict had taken refuge. He chose the unexpected course of forcing Gregory to grant him absolution by doing penance before him at , where he had taken refuge. Click the link for more information. This was eagerly repeated by later opponents of the Catholic Church, such as the English Protestant. The battle extended beyond rhetoric and exchanges of letters.
First Crusade Origins In the 7th cent. Gregory believed that it was his divinely enjoined duty not only to protect the church from the stain of abuses such as simony, but also to free it from every distraction that would impede the performance of God's work in the world. Hildebrand took the name Gregory in memory of , whose writings greatly influenced him. A strong proponent of papal reform, he issued 1059 the Papal Election Decree in an effort to minimize political interference in papal elections. Peter, inherits a commission from Christ to rule over the church.
Through the process of German unification it brought about the sense of nationalism and the ideas of a nation. Contemporary evidence suggests that the of Henry made a profound impression both in Germany and Italy. Gregory had no power to compel the English king to an alteration in his ecclesiastical policy, so he chose to ignore what he could not approve, and even considered it advisable to assure him of his particular affection. The transmission of these rulings must be closely examined to determine the extent to which they were promulgated and applicable at different points throughout Latin Christendom, for the programs of the reformers were not disseminated everywhere in the same manner. He twice Henry, who in the end appointed to oppose him in the political power struggles between the and his empire.
The latter had now become less powerful, and thirteen cardinals deserted him. An assessment of Gregory's policies must be given within the general history of the eleventh-century reform and from the perspective of his fascination with and devotion to the Roman church and the papal office. The papal office, furthermore, was an awesome responsibility. Thirty years before, had deposed three claimants to the papacy, and thereby rendered an acknowledged service to the Church. Henry then tried to reassert his rights as the sovereign of northern Italy without delay. Nevertheless, Gregory at first tried to arbitrate between Henry and Rudolf, but he excommunicated Henry for a second time at the Lenten synod of 1080 and formally recognized Rudolf as king. Philip of France also turned a deaf ear to papal commands, even when the pope threatened and interdict in December 1073 and a year later announced that he would do everything in his power to depose Philip.
He refused to acknowledge the ban on the ground of its illegality. Leo sent Hildebrand as his to in in the wake of the controversy created by. Emerton's translation has been superseded by a complete English translation of the register by H. Then, on the capture of Rome, he abandoned the city to his troops, and the popular indignation evoked by his act brought about Gregory's exile. Other stories credit Gregory with the power of making lightning with a motion of his hand and causing thunder to dart from his sleeve. In the 10th and 11th cent.
Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino December 2008. He was again the most powerful figure behind the election of Anselm of Lucca the Elder as in the. In France, despite King Phillip I's opposition, the bishops complied. The translation given is probably correct in that something has to do duty for this verb's missing set of perfect meanings 'I have hated - I had hated - I shall have hated' and for the past aorist 'I hated'. An apocalyptic fall from grace. His quarrels with the pope were smoothed over, and both parties were able to compromise without loss of face.
Gregory continued the policies he had previously advocated as a prominent member of the papal court. The theological and practical importance of the changes being sought reached deep into the religious mentality of Latin Christendom, and had profound effects on eucharistic theology, the cult of saints, attitudes toward property, and the role of laymen in designating appointees to church positions. The terrified servants begged the demons to cast down as much of the city wall as lay in their way; thus they escaped punishment for their disobedience. Although his importance is undeniable, the extent to which the cause of church reform was aided or hindered by his pontificate is a complicated issue. On 22 May 1073 he received , and on 30 June was ordained as a in his position as Bishop of Rome. In 1059 he was given the title Archdeacon of the Roman church and also held the title of Chancellor of the Apostolic See.
Concepts that he grasped intuitively were elaborated on legally and theoretically in the 12th and 13th centuries and resulted in what is known as the papal monarchy. He then accompanied to Rome; there, Bruno was elected Pope, choosing the name , and named Hildebrand as and papal administrator. He was one of the greatest popes. In his new position Hildebrand also actively furthered the papal alliance with the Normans of southern Italy and their principal leaders, including , who became a papal vassal. Exile from Rome The pope was liberated, but after the Roman people became incensed by the excesses of his Norman allies, he was compelled to withdraw to , and later to the castle of by the sea, where he died the following year.
Thus in the early 1070s Henry supported one candidate for the archbishopric of that city while the papacy supported another. Gregory did this at a time when he himself was confronted by a reckless opponent in the person of , who on night surprised him in church and carried him off as a prisoner, though on the following day Gregory was released. If Gregory granted absolution, the of princes in Augsburg in which he might reasonably hope to act as arbitrator would either become useless, or, if it met at all, would change completely in character. The new pope put forward the reform program devised by Hildebrand and his followers. After watching that performance from within the castle for three days, Gregory forgave Henry, and lifted the sentence of excommunication but probably did not intend to reinstate him as king. From that perspective the events and the turmoil of his reign appear as outcroppings of a desire to continue the reforming work of his predecessors, and also to establish what he deemed to be the proper order of Christian society. During this vital period in the history of both the reforming movement and its papal leaders, he was involved in every aspect of the reform and in every phase of the process by which the papacy liberated itself from lay control, German as well as Italian, and sought to establish its rights of jurisdiction over the local churches of Latin Christendom.
This forgery had introduced the concept of , with poorly defined functions designed to protect bishops from interference by their superiors, the archbishops. Of special significance are the two volumes of papers from an international Congress held at Salerno in 1985, commemorating the 900th anniversary of Gregory's death in that city: vol. He was said to be of humble origins. Certainly, the mode of his election was highly criticized by his opponents. Issues arose about the interaction of the ecclesiastical and secular realms of society that would be debated for centuries.