Defining terms in a research paper
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Literature Review A comprehensive survey of the research literature on a topic. This is contrasted with longitudinal data, which is collected from the same individuals at more than one point in time. What changes have occurred in the structure and functions of MexicanAmerican families during the twentieth century, and what trends do such changes reflect? It also establishes how much of a change is shown in the dependent variable. In writing -- or in analyzing -- an argument, you need to ask whether the assertion has appropriate proof in terms of type and quantity. Fixed Effects Regression Regression techniques that can be used to eliminate biases associated with the omission of unmeasured characteristics. Error The difference between the actual observed data value and the predicted or estimated data value. This individual is usually from the local community e.

Cohort A group of people sharing a common demographic experience who are observed through time. Univariate Analysis Examination of the properties of one variable only and not the relationship between variables. Mutually Exclusive Said of variables, events or conditions that can be placed into one category and no other. Regardless Every Definition Essay should be written in the classic Intro-Body s -Conclusion format. Ordinarily you are expected to consider all sides of a question with a fairly open mind rather than taking a firm position and arguing it. Codebook Any information on the structure, content, and layout of a data set. Level of Significance See significance level.

So even though it is a matter of opinion, ordinarily you are expected to explain why you think as you do. The test is appropriate for small sample sizes less than 30. In statistical analyses, control variables are held constant or their impact is removed to better analyze the relationship between the outcome variable and other variables of interest. Participant-As-Observer The investigator takes part in the group activity that the researcher plans to study. Field Work Observing human behavior or interviewing individuals within their own communities. Experimental Group In experimental research, the group of subjects who receive the experimental treatment or intervention under investigation. Population A clearly defined group of people or objects.

Comparability The quality of two or more objects that can be evaluated for their similarity and differences. This data would not be made generalizable. Observation and experiment is used to show whether the phenomena fit the theory. Feel free to use them for successful completion of your academic homework assignments. Probability is conventionally expressed on a scale from 0 to 1; a rare event has a probability close to 0, a very common event has a probability close to 1. Duration Models A group of statistical models used to measure the length of a status or process.

Often the original sample is broken down into smaller groups subsamples to be sampled at different rates. Google and other internet search engines may be an easy way, but they are usually not suitable. For example, temperature, weight and time are usually well known and defined, with only the exact scale used needing definition. The residuals in regression models. Each research methodology is underpinned by an epistemology that serves as a guiding philosophy and provides a concrete process of research steps. Enjoy our free writing help.

Drama A cross comparison of the current and historical precepts of drama. Widely used in opinion polling and market research. It is also referred to as blended methods, combined methods, or methodological triangulation. However, acculturation also implies that both cultures add something to one another, but still remain distinct groups unto themselves. I've often encountered this type of problem in my own academic writing and not only in theses. Standardized Variables The values of variables from different types of scales are transformed so that they can be compared with one another. Investigators can be principal investigators or co-principal investigators.

Primary Sampling Units The pieces into which an area frame sampling divides land. Dummy Variables Categorical variables that are assigned a value of 0 or 1 for use in a statistical analyses see Dummy Coding. Where should I put this section? The privacy rule provides federal protections for personal health information held by covered entities and gives patients specific rights with respect to that information. Nonresponse Rate Bias A source of bias that occurs when non-respondents differ in important ways from respondents. Examples of Defining a Research Problem An anthropologist might find references to a relatively unknown tribe in Papua New Guinea.

The researcher may conclude that the death penalty causes an increase in the murder rate; however, it could be that states that experience a high murder rate are more likely to institute the death penalty. But the need to specify what is intended by academic ability, high school students, and family structure may not be so obvious, since we often find individuals using those terms without any clarifying explanation, apparently on the assumption that the words mean the same to everybody. You see a new word that absolutely means nothing to you. Mature Minor Someone who has not reached adulthood as defined by state law but who may be treated as an adult for certain purposes e. Privacy Control over the extent, timing, and circumstances of disclosing personal information physical, behavioral, or intellectual with others. In random selection, each individual in the eligible population has a fixed and determinate probability of selection into the sample. For exercise, use a different dictionary for every term or, if this is not possible, use different dictionaries.

Dissertation is a voluminous and very complex work which has to be completed and defended by a student in order for him or her to earn a PhD degree. Point Estimate A statistic calculated from a sample that is an estimate of some single characteristic of the population. Significance Level The probability that a relationship observed in statistical analyses were actually due to chance. This is standard procedure in publishing scholarly research. Hypothesis A statement that predicts the relationship between the independent causal and dependent outcome variables. For example, children start school at the same time of year that the leaves begin to fall from the trees.