Information about environment reaching as inputs in usual manner may enter the system too late. In order to counteract the demand made by certain people the authority employs its own supporters to propagate against the demand. A political system is a subsystem of the societal system, but it has a binding power of its own. The conversion of demands into decision does not take place easily. Feedback : Definition of Feedback : C. The function of a sieve is to remove the obnoxious or undesirable elements and separate the desirable ones. In fact, before Easton political scientists did not think it prudent to shed light on the comparative aspects of political systems.
Support can be towards a the political community which means the acceptance of political division of labour; b the regime which embodies basic values, political structures, and norms underlying the political system; and c the political authorities or persons holding power in the given context. The conversion process operates dynamically because the selection can take place over a period of time. There is a chain of action and reaction. The concept has substantial relevance in mechanics and economics. The first two are essential parts of political life. If any organ of the body does not receive the blood properly or resists in performing its function, the whole system of the body will be disturbed.
This is called give and take policy. Since 1953, when The Political System appeared, Easton has published several well-known books. Similarly, though political system is a distinct system and has its own boundary it cannot remain aloof from other systems. One is to collect data and facts which are called empirical way. The heart circulates blood to the organs of the whole body. Secondly, demands for the regulation of behaviour. In the re-modeling of structure or reorienting of processes there is an important contribution of communication which should not escape our attention.
Even delayed information can cause great harm to the survival of a political system. The modification or control of a process or system by its results or effects. Or it may be that it is beyond the capacity of the system to meet demands. Different parts of human and animal bodies discharge their duties systematically and this leads to an equilibrium position. There is a constant inflow or outflow of information to the political system or out of the political system. Question is: does the political system stop its function or does it collapse? It can take the form of stress, effects, demands, agitations, crises etc.
Easton has discovered it from his study of different political systems and a comparative analysis. And support is the second input. By introducing the feedback Easton attempts to highlight the functioning of the political system. Response: A political system has to respond to its environment in coping with crises, stresses, and other difficulties. Both the internal and external variables are not a pan of the political system. This is the feedback mechanism and it was first employed by Easton to explain how the political system is influenced by outside elements and again the latter also influences the former.
It looks into quantity, nature of contents, source, kind, volume, intensity, etc. Diversification amidst growing interconnectedness presents political research with problem sets that can befuddle traditional approaches and concepts. With the arrival of new forces the steady state changes and they move new stage or position. Interactions and their various forms within a system confront the problems of stress, maintenance, etc. Outputs have several aspects — economic, social, cultural, political, etc. Decisions are taken with the consultation of masses.
Even the form, need, and quality of support depends on it. When a policy is established, it interacts with the changing situation to produce further changes. Even if everything changes system survives. Fourthly, many citizens demand more information from the authority—information relating to the management of state affairs, information regarding foreign affairs such as treaty agreement etc. The government officials talk among themselves and gather internal feedback.
Gunnell, and Luigi Graziano eds. Exchanges take place between a political system and its environment which is made of many systems and their subsystems, including even para-political systems. It is alleged-he has failed. The elements jostle or fight or act and react among themselves and, at the same time, they do not forget to reach a compromise which is called steady state or equilibrium. Max Weber has defined political system as a human community that successfully claims the monopoly of legitimate use of physical force within a given territory. It is the monopoly of coercive power that characterizes the relationships between the political system and non-political systems.
This is also a common picture. Input-Output Concept and the System Theory : In the analysis of general systems theory a crucial section is input-output concept and Easton is the champion of this analysis. David Easton's Political Systems Model and bibliography. Thomson has criticised Easton for dodging answers to such questions. Why does a political theory survive? In economics, outputs are the products.
Demands include higher wages, better health care, more facilities for education, improved infrastructure etc. They can be the effects or results of immediately authorised decisions. Outputs help to maintain support for the political system. Here two things are essential. The self-regulatory mechanism also highlights a quite different concept which is popularly termed as social change. One of Easton's hypotheses was applied in 1997 in by. Some of them are as follows- Economic demands include the desire for higher living standards, better employment opportunities or welfare or social security benefits.