Although various studies have discovered that the carbohydrate-rich fluids are beneficial in improving the postoperative recovery, the effectiveness of the fluids in reducing the length of hospital is uncertain. Curr Opin Crit Care , 16: 339—346. The study concluded that fasting for one hour does not alter the pH significantly as compared to fasting for two hours. The suggestions to fast before an operation is associated with the assumption that food which is consumed just before an operation remains in the gastric system, thus increasing the risk related to aspiration. Older adults are more vulnerable due to physiological changes, as well as inability to compensate when adverse events occur. Similar effect of carbohydrates on insulin were got from another study by Bilku, et al, 2014 that was characterized by 17 randomized controlled trials and a total of 1,445 patients. We are showing only a sample of literature review introduction to give you a good idea of how a literature review sample should look like.
Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia, 29, 2, 125-130. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 29, 3, 681-686. Preoperative carbohydrate supplementation attenuates post-surgery insulin resistance via reduced inflammatory inhibition of the insulin-mediated restraint on muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 expression. According to Hamid 2014 correct fasting intervals are essential for curtailing the inconveniences related to delay in surgery, reducing the medical complications and improving the post operative wellbeing. However, not all studies have found the administration of carbohydrates effective in the improving the conditions of an operation procedure.
Improved patient education facilitates adherence to preoperative fasting guidelines. Blais, Andre, Jean-Michel Cousineau, and Kenneth McRoberts. Our professional writers can easily create a paper on any topic, so be sure that they will cope with your literature review and graduate thesis. Unionization in the state's work force and political party of the legislator were never significant; the latter result probably occurred because northern and southern Democrats typically voted on opposite sides. Best Practice and Research Clinical Anaesthesiology, 20, 3, 363-378. The decreased incidents of pulmonary aspiration, however, indicates that use of only 168 study patients could be leading to inaccurate results. Samantaray 2014 attribute the low occurrences of aspiration during anesthesia to the increased awareness on pulmonary aspiration and improvement in anesthetic techniques rather than the use of the traditional fasting guidelines.
This is because their health conditions are characterized by a range of health conditions that may complicate the application of the fasting guidelines. Pain Physician , 14 5 :459-67. In matters compliance, studies have found out that compliance does not necessarily mean that the patient understands the advantages of the guidelines. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 114, 3, 477-482. Pre-procedural fasting has also been found ineffective in improving comfort and satisfaction. Prolonged preoperative fasting in elective surgical patients: Why should we reduce it? Some of the guidelines include ensuring a minimum fast two hours from clear liquids, eight hours from heavy foods, six hours from a light meal or infant formula and fours from breast milk. Why do a Literature Review? Just like any other document, a literature review consists of an introduction, body, and the conclusion.
Using variables for each congressional district, they found larger political contributions by unions and larger proportions of low-income families increased the probability of an affirmative vote, while larger campaign contributions from small business and larger proportions of teen-age workers reduced the probability. More recently, Seltzer 1995 explored support in both the House and Senate for the 1938 introduction of the federal minimum wage law. Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents: prevention and prophylaxis. This model was tested with ordinary least squares for a pooled sample covering nine provinces for the years 1975 to 1982, with no fixed effects for provinces or years. The sources include government reports, websites, scholarly articles etc. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 118, 6, 1268-1273.
Take this argumentative literature review example prepare an argument which best bits your research. However, this study did not make any definite conclusion on the preservation of the muscle mass. Aspiration was also absent in both scenarios. Prolonged pre-operative fasting is termed as an unpleasant experience that possesses the capacity to cause serious medical complications. Fasting from midnight — the history behind the dogma. Despite the ubiquity of minimum wage legislation, this question has received surprisingly little attention. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 43, 6, 728-733.
How to write a Literature Review? Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 19, 4, 439-42. We are happy to share it with you. However, these guidelines had been already suggested earlier. Preoperative complications and the health of the adult patients characterized by the various conditions such as nausea, thirst and hunger were analyzed for a certain paper involving 38 randomized studies. Patients booked for elective surgery are always advised to refrain from eating or drinking after midnight of the previous day from when their surgery is scheduled.
Aorn Journal, 88, 6, 963. A Literature review reveals the current state of research on a given topic or any given topic. A literature review reveals the in-depth knowledge of your subject. The failure to implement these guidelines is also associated with ignorance on the side of anesthetists. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on preoperative oral carbohydrate treatment in elective surgery.
He found variables representing small business and low-wage workers decreased support for the bill, while ideology liberals for, conservatives against was also important. Although this may led to unintentional compliance, there is a need of the health care givers to inform patients on the necessity of the practice to ensure that they intentionally and knowledgeably comply. Participants that were given water exhibited lower volume of gastric contents compared to the ones with the normal fasting regimen. Journal of Clinical and Scientific Research, 3, 4, 243-250. According to Wei, et al.
Baker, Michael, Dwayne Benjamin, and Schuchita Stanger. These results were obtained from an examination of the residual gastric contents of 255 fasted patients that were under medication for gastrointestinal endoscopy, the study found out that the males presented for endoscopy. These studies always find it difficult because these problems are rare among children. Singapore Medical Journal, 55, 1, 18-23. Survey of Anesthesiology, 60, 5, 203-203. Few of them for you. In other words, it is the process of searching and evaluating the available literature in your chosen topic.