Many people criticise that the Indian Constitution is a bag of borrowings or just a paper and scissor work. Even though there are numerous powers bestowed on the President, practically most of the powers are exercised by the Prime Minister who heads the Council of Ministers. In the United States, there is provision of dual citizenship. Right to Freedom of Religion: The objectives of this right include the freedom of conscience, religion and worship. However, by providing a very strong centre, a common constitution, single citizenship, emergency provisions, common election commission, common all India services etc. The Supreme Court or a may declare the amendment null and void if this is violated, after a. After independence, the inclusion of explicit provisions for judicial review were compulsory in order to give effect to the individual and group rights guaranteed in the text of the Constitution.
Rajya sabha contains representatives of the people while Lok Sabha contains representatives of the state. It also confers upon them the right to establish, maintain and administer their educational institutions. Presently, the Rajya Sabha has 245 members. It offers for a mixture of federalism and Unitarianism, and flexibility and with rigidity. The Supreme Court is the highest court of the land. There are 101 total amendments of Indian Constitution so far with the recent one on 8th Sept 2016.
Mindful of India's needs and conditions, its framers borrowed features of previous legislation such as the , the , and , the and , and the. Some of the important features of Article 370 in relation with the state of Jammu and Kashmir are explained in following points. The Cabinet, in fact the Prime Minister has the power to get the Lok Sabha dissolved by the President. The document lays down the framework demarcating fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, , and the duties of citizens. The basic structure of the Constitution i.
Constitutional emergency article 356 arises due to failure of state constitutional machinery. The Bill, passed by the required majority, is then presented to the President who shall give his assent to the Bill. In Indira Nehru Gandhi v. The judges give impartial justice. They govern themselves through their representatives elected on the basis of universal adult franchise. The following are the salient features of the Constitution of India. In this system, the executive is responsible to the legislature, and remains in power only as long and it enjoys the confidence of the legislature.
The President, the nominal executive shall exercise his powers according to the advice of the Union Council of Ministers, the real executive. The Indian Constitution: Cornerstone of a Nation 2nd ed. Functions of president and vice-president 3. It is the largest written liberal democratic constitution of the world. The constitution was a hand written document, and not typed and printed, with as much as 48 articles, 12 schedules and 94 amendments.
With the help of Article 368, Parliament can amend the constitution. Alhough it had picked up many best features from other constitutions of the world. It works for preventing the violations of human rights of the people. Female members included , , , and. The court determines the constitutional validity of the laws and rules of the government.
It controls and runs the judicial administration of India. India is not ruled by a monarch or a nominated head of state. The Supreme Court acts as the guardian protector and interpreter of the Constitution. Every constitutional amendment is articulated as a statute. It provides for the enforcement and protection of Fundamental Rights by the courts.
The main features of Indian Constitution are as follows :- Features of Indian Constitution : Bulky and Voluminous The Indian Constitution is one of the Bulkiest Constitution in the World. It lays down a list of ten Fundamental Duties for all citizens of India. The most famous among them is the Basic structure doctrine as laid down by the Supreme Court in the case of Kesavananda Bharati v. Precisely, they have also been used to abolish untouchability and thus prohibit discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth. Article 13 2 of the Constitution of India prescribes that the Union or the States shall not make any law that takes away or abridges any of the fundamental rights, and any law made in contravention of the aforementioned mandate shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void.
At about 145,000 words, it is the second-longest active constitution — after the — in the world. Further, a detail list of individual rights, directive principles of state policy and the details of administration procedure were laid down to make the Constitution clear and unambiguous for the ordinary citizen. Secular: The word 'Secular', like Socialist, was also added in the Preamble by 42nd Amendment of the Constitution. Ari Bahadur Gurung represented the Gorkha community. Secondly, the vast size of country and diversity of the culture necessitated the adoption of parliamentary form of government. A federation with strong centralising tendency The most remarkable feature of the Indian Constitution is that being a federal Constitution it acquires a unitary character during the time of emergency.