The north-western parts of India—Punjab and Ganga plains—are invaded by shallow cyclonic disturbances moving from west to east and having their origin in the Mediterranean Sea. One part moves northwards over the Arabian Sea and up the coastal side of the Western Ghats. The two main branches of the monsoon winds follow different courses: but originally, they set out to fill the intense low pressure void created in the north-west of the subcontinent. Inadequate water levels in the reservoirs hydel power plants during deficient monsoon situation lead to below capacity power generation. Monsoon winds at the surface blow from heat sink to heat source. During this period, the global heat belt shifts towards north because of the apparent northward movement of the sun.
The Tibetan Plateau gets intensely heated resulting in strong vertical air currents and high pressure over the plateau about 9 km above sea level. The south-west monsoon winds weaken and start withdrawing gradually. Average April, the temperature decreases slightly during the summer months, which coincides with the rainy season. This phenomenon is based upon differential heating of land and ocean bodies. The cooler high pressure air moves towards the low pressure over the ocean and causes the retreating north-east monsoon.
The rainfall in Bangladesh varies, depending upon season and location. Depression Rainfall Depressions A depression is a region of low atmospheric pressure. While there are floods in some regions, the other regions face drought. At the end of the month, the entire Indian region is covered by northerly air and the monsoon takes shape. Monsoon rainfall and the monsoon rhythm are therefore complex systems.
Western , , and Arabia remain dry probably because of the divergence in this jet and thus become the new source of surface heat. Snowfall is restricted to the Himalayan region. A fertilizer plant at the port of Paradip, India, inundated by a storm surge after the Orissa cyclone of October 29—30, 1999. This happens just when the summer crops are growing and need plenty of moisture. Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat get scanty rainfall. The Tibet plateau is 600 km wide in the west and 1,000 km wide in the east, with a length of about 2,000 km. The long-term average has been 899 millimeters of precipitation.
The life cycle of a cyclone ends soon after the cyclone reaches land landfall because it is cut off from its moisture source. As a result, the air above land expands and rises up. Mauritius is divided into 25 and 21 major and minor basins that are discharged into the Indian Ocean. There is rainfall in every month of the year in some part of the country: i. The retreating monsoon picks up moisture from the Bay of Bengal and establishes itself over Tamil Nadu coast in the month of December and causes rainfall in Tamil Nadu.
What will the surge heights be in those areas? It is a climatic type of tropical latitudes distinctly developed along the eastern coast of tropical lands:— S. The monsoons may be strong or weak in a particular year depending on the intensity and frequency of depression in the Bay of Bengal. Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat get scanty rainfall. This shrinking limb intensifies Mascarene High and therefore the S-W monsoon winds accelerate towards India causing good rains. If the reverse of the season passes through the south of India, it is called the Winter Monsoon Current, otherwise, it is called the Summer Monsoon Current. Thus, the plateau is capable of acting as a massive physical barrier. A normal monsoon is generally accepted to be one involving close to the average quantity of precipitation over all the geographical locations under its influence mean spatial distribution and over the entire expected time period mean temporal distribution.
The monsoon rains take place only for a few days at a time. The equator ward flow enters India as easterly jet stream helping in the onset of the monsoon. The lowest pressures prevail at the surface. The rainy area is therefore at this time limited to the east coast of Tamil Nadu and the south of the peninsula where the rainiest period is between October and November. Although the western currents of the monsoon penetrate further into the Indian mainland the intensity of rainfall goes on decreasing on the leeward side. The monsoon reaches Himachal Pradesh and the rest of the country by mid-July. A monsoon with excess rain can cause floods, and one with too little rain can lead to widespread drought, , and economic losses.
This tropical easterly jet stream actually originates in longitudes east of India and then travels across India and the Arabian Sea towards eastern Africa. In this case, the eastern Pacific Ocean has lower pressure compared to the eastern Indian Ocean. Indian Ocean with a sinking limb at Mascarene High. The overall pattern of the advance follows a , but local episodes may differ considerably. The cyclonic conditions are replaced by anti-cyclonic ones. The Arabian Sea branch is more powerful of the two because of two reasons—one, the size of the Arabian Sea is bigger and two, most of the Arabian Sea branch falls over India, while most of the Bay of Bengal branch goes to Myanmar, Malaysia and Thailand. These monsoon winds reach the southern states of India by October, and are responsible for a second round of rainfall.