Social control is formalised and exerted by duly appointed functionaries and by formally approved methods. The method of overt action is the final sanction when no other way remains open. In society, there are innumerable modes like to monogamy, prohibition, endogamy, antislavery etc. It is law, which prevents the people from indulging in antisocial activities. It imparts a sense of continuity. In this way law exercises a powerful influence upon the behavior of people in modern socie-ties.
A particular dress must be worn at a particular function. The most important unconscious means are custom, tradition and convention. Traditional societies mostly embed informal social control culture to establish social order. The educational curriculum may communicate certain ideas to the students and make them discipline citizens. Sociologists identify two basic forms of social control — informal control and formal control. It may also be intentional or unintentional. It is a matter of usage.
Unless the individuals live up to the prescribed norms of conduct and unless their self-seeking impulses are subjugated to the welfare of the whole, it would be quite difficult to maintain social organisation effectively. A brief explanation of these means follows: i Law: Law is the most important formal means of social control. Education is a process of socialization. Traditionally, our political ethics is based on nonviolence or least violence. These are law, education, public opinion and coercion. Our social thinking has remained influenced by Varnashrama Dharma, Punarjanam and Dhamma.
Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to man, people should be honest and virtuous and should limit one's desires, man should renounce unsocial activities are some of the teaching of religion which influence man's behavior. But the question of their validity does not necessarily determine their effectiveness of social controls, we act with as much determination from false beliefs as from factually second ones. The fifth belief in the immortality of soul lend man to avoid such actions as will cause pain to the soul of the deceased ancestors. The first method is putting the life examples of great men. In such a social order the State exercises control through rules and regulations in! On the other hand, he wants praise, appreciation, honour and recognition by the society.
The lawbreakers are punished by the law of the state. The local neighborhood reinforces or strengthens the individual family as an agency of social control. The importance of customs as a means of social control cannot be minimised. It prepares the child for social living and teaches him the values of discipline, cooperation, tolerance and integration. Human praise is the sweetest music.
The type of literature one reads will indirectly influence his mind and consequently his behaviour. They control the purely selfish impulses. According to him, though physical force in indispensable in social control, yet, it is not merely the force that can manage the individuals. Through social control attempt is made to get the social decision obeyed. They are more influential and dominant in the primitive society than in the modern society. It is an essential condition of the human society. It is automatic in character; no special agency is required to enforce it.
The choice of individual for striving towards the cultural goal is limited by institutional norms. Religion makes people benevolent, charitable, forbearing and truthful. In modern times, this is no longer an offence and this is due to shifts in society's values. Agencies of Social Control : There are various agencies through which social control is exercised. Totalitarian states normally try to do this. To bring Solidarity: Social control is to create the feeling of solidarity in the minds of people.
Individuals internalize the values of their society, whether conscious or not of the indoctrination. Overt action also includes fines, imprisonment, whipping, mutilation, torture, banishment, ostracism and death. On the other hand, he wants praise, appreciation, honour and recognition by the society. Man learns them from his very childhood and goes on obeying them. The University of Chicago Law Review.
The Hindu women should not smoke. It is essential for the members of the group to conform to them. Hell is a place of terror, miseries and tortures. Ideologies are powerful dynamic forces of contemporary social life. The primary agent of social control in any person's life is their family.
It is the way in which our social order coheres and maintains itself. Hence, sanctions are used by the group to control the behaviour of the individuals. Although enforcement of the old order in a changing society may hinder social progress, yet it is necessary to maintain continuity and uniformity in society. It is the ultimate means of social control when all other means fail. Their structure is complex consisting of a number of groups, organisations, institutions and vested interests. Church: Church is regarded as an institutionalized expression of religion.