The Kumaramatyas were the high officers and the personal staff of the emperor and were appointed by the king in the home provinces and possibly paid in cash. Punishment was far from being severe. George Allen and Unwin Ltd, London. After centuries of political disintegration an empire came to be established in A. On the other hand, the weight of military infrastructures bore down on civil society.
Throughout this period, there was a partial disconnect between the rival dynastic states and the world of village, production, and commerce. In the Allahabad Pillar Inscription, Samudragupta is described as equal to Kuvera, Varuna, Indra and Yama, and a God on earth. Soon after the invasions, the Gupta Empire, already weakened by these invasions and the rise of local rulers such as , ended as well. Though the general economic condition of the country was prosperous, yet the people were far from the vices associated with wealth. More likely, internal dissolution sapped the ability of the Guptas to resist foreign invasion, as was simultaneously occurring in Western Europe and China.
The Mauryan Empirewas the kingdom of Magadha, which was founded by Chandragupta. The empire disintegrated under the attacks of and his successor. He married a Kadamba princess of Kuntala and of Naga lineage Nāgakulotpannnā , Kuberanaga. He started on the outskirts and eventually made his way to the heart of the kingdom. The caves at Mogulrajapuram, Undavalli and Akkannamadanna in the Andhra country beiong to the Gupta period.
Buddhist and Jaina literature in Sanskrit were also written during the Gupta period Buddhist scholars Arya Deva, Arya Asanga and Vasubandhu of the Gupta period were the most notable writers. Small boundaries of petty territories disappeared from the political map. The numerous gold coins of the time prove the economic prosperity of the state. The Laghu-Jataka, BrihatJataka and Brihat Samhita are some of his other important works. The arteries of state accumulation were cloggy. According to scholars, the empire wielded 600,000 infantry, or foot soldiers, 30,000 cavalry, or soldiers on horseback, and 9,000 war elephants.
Earlier values and institutions were reaffirmed so effectively that the characteristic Hindu and Chinese culture patterns have endured down to modern times, despite frequent invasions of both homelands. One unique tactic by the ruler was using war elephants in his conquests. Culture, in fact, grows in an atmosphere of peace. Textiles, metals, precious stones, spices, salt, and exotic animals were among the commodities traded. One was the professional army, which Megasthenes reports was an incredibly large force of 700,000 men, 9000 elephants, and 10,000 chariots. The shock of Alexander the Great's invasion of India provided the spark that led to the unification of India.
He used tribute money from allies to fund government projects and salaries. His daughter from this Naga queen was married to , the ruler of. . E Bindusara 297-2 73 B. Arthasastra was divided into 15 … sections and 180 sub-sections. Penance was provided to remove the sin arising out of touching a chandala.
The army was paid in cash and its needs were well looked after by an officer-in-charge of stores called Ranabhandagarika. The Mauryan Army, the largest standing military force of its time, supported the expansion and defense of the empire. Most offenders were punished only by fines. Eventually, this branch of the Huns adopted Hinduism and was assimilated into Indian society. By promoting such emotional Hinduism, the Gupta monarchs gained great favor among all classes of their subjects.
Trade declined and the pace of progress slowed. The lowering of the rate of interest also indicates the greater availability of goods and the consequent decrease in rates of profit. But he had opened routes between India and the West that would remain open during the following Hellenistic and Roman periods, and by destroying the petty states in the Punjab he facilitated - and perhaps inspired - the conquests of India's own first emperor. The preserving function of the Indo-Chinese heritage was reinforced by the roles of women. Also, the Guptas did not enjoy a monopoly of elephants and horses, which were essential ingredients of military machinery. Rightly, therefore, that the Gupta Age has been described as the Golden Age of ancient India. Under the Gupta benevolence, all religions and faiths received liberal treatment.
All the power, wealth, and extravagant living led the rulers to become very lazy. The increase in the number of shudra castes and untouchables was largely due to the absorption of backward forest tribes into the settled Varna society. His conquests are known from a lengthy eulogy composed by his court-poet Harishena and inscribed on an Asokan pillar at Allahabad. Vishakadatta is the author of the Mudrarakshasa, which deals with the schemes of the shrewd Chanakya. As a result, people came under greater cohesion.
The third category consists of the rulers of the forest states atavirarajyas who were reduced to servitude and the chief of the five Border States pratyantas and nine tribal republics that were forced to pay all kinds of taxes obey his orders and came to perform obeisance. From Chandragupta I to Skandagupta, the dynasty contained five emperors who ruled one after another, covering a period of one century and a half. A high ranking official, heard for the first time in the Gupta records was the Sandhivigrahika the foreign minister. Governors were usually in charge of administration and positions where often passed on from father to son. The Smritis of Yajnavalkya, Narada, Katyayana and Brihaspati were written during this period. From the records of the history of ancient India it was written that the Mauryan Empire was founded by Chandragupta Maurya with the help of Kautilya by overthrowing the Nandas.