What if you have no idea how to finish your work? The academic writing should be clear, impartial, and objective. However, do not repeat the details of established methods; use References and Supporting Materials to indicate the previously published procedures. Are you ready to learn more secrets distinguished scientists use to succeed in their most famous scientific works? The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. What did we know about it before I did this study? Moreover, you should feel more confident that you are able to accomplish your project and submit your paper within a reasonable timeframe. If you used animals, what measures did you take to minimize pain? It's not unusual to find articles in social science journals where the author s have combined a description of the findings with a discussion about their implications. For example, in reporting a study of the effect of an experimental diet on the skeletal mass of the rat, consider first giving the data on skeletal mass for the rats fed the control diet and then give the data for the rats fed the experimental diet.
Writing an abstract Write your summary after the rest of the paper is completed. Of course you did, because that is what all good scientists do, and it is a given that you recorded your measurements and observations. Review articles are particularly useful because they summarize all the research done on a narrow subject area over a brief period of time a year to a few years in most cases. A good discussion will explain why your results and the whole paper is important. You also have worked out your writing schedule and followed it precisely. For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes. This article is the second in the series.
If you refer to others, is because you are discussing your results, and this must be included in the Discussion section. A new framework for understanding cognition and affect in writing; pp. In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. Here we compare the results of the proposed method with those of the traditional methods. Do not put results in this section.
Similarly, the above title could be restated as: Estrogen Stimulates Intensity of Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice 4. Self-Criticism at the Heart of Writing a Discussion Section For this purpose, you should criticize the experiment, and be honest about whether your was good enough. From one side, the freedom to pick the topic opens new horizons. Include the date s of the study e. The closing section restates the mentioned in the beginning. So before you move on to create your Introduction, re-read your Methods and Results sections and change your outline to match your research focus.
A sample of Suggestions for Further Research section is below. The best way to approach the macrostructure revision is through the outline of the ideas in your paper. Therefore, during construction of a draft, attention distracting environment should be avoided, and this step should be completed within 1—2 hours. Summarize the answers to the research questions. External referees are our colleagues who did not contribute to data collection of our study in any way, but we can request their opinions about the subject matter of the manuscript. General intent This should be the easiest section to write, but many students misunderstand the purpose. Make it fun is the direct responsibility of the event managers, coaches, participants themselves, and watchers.
The 1st automobile, a premium-class Jaguar functions thanks to hydrogen. This should be a general statement reiterating your answer to the research question and adding its scientific implications, practical application, or advice. As noted, the exception to discussing findings in the same order you described them in the results section would be to begin by highlighting the implications of a particularly unexpected or significant finding that emerged from the study, followed by a discussion of the remaining findings. Ask your professor if you need to include any raw data generated by your study, such as transcripts from interviews or data files. Then explain the main finding as related to the overall purpose of the study. The reader does not want to read everything you know about a subject.
The best studies open up new avenues of research. Remember that no is not the same as no difference, and you can begin to explain this in your discussion section. Each paragraph should contain opinions in favour or against the topic discussed, critical evaluations, and learning points. Another reason, perhaps more important than the first, is that this format allows the paper to be read at several different levels. It is not a problem — read these helpful tips, and if the problem remains unsolved, to get quality help.
You can thank those who either helped with the experiments, or made other important contributions, such as discussing the protocol, commenting on the manuscript, or buying you pizza. By finding the niche, you outline the scope of your research problem and enter the scientific dialogue. One way to do this is to take every research question and hypothesis in turn and explain in plain terms what the statistical results mean. One may add a rhetorical question as a hook. No statistics need to be repeated from the results, nor does the discussion need to refer to table numbers. You don't necessarily have to include all the data you've gotten during the semester. The problem with 4 is that the reader has to switch from the point of view of the experiment passive voice to the point of view of the experimenter active voice.
Bates College; Hess, Dean R. Use sub-headings to keep results of the same type together, which is easier to review and read. However, this conclusion was unlikely since the results for the Number Series task were contrary to the original hypothesis. Angel Borja draws on his extensive background as an author, reviewer and editor to give advice on preparing the manuscript author's view , the evaluation process reviewer's view and what there is to hate or love in a paper editor's view. Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area. Write the literature review which will be highlighting the relevant findings.