In , the penetration of nationalism produced two opposing schools of thought. Mexico continued to resist despite a chaotic political situation, and so Polk launched an invasion of the country's heartland. In America as well as in revolutionary France, nationalism meant the to a universal progressive idea, looking toward a common future of freedom and equality, not toward a past characterized by and inequality. However, the nationalism that inspired the German people to rise against the empire of was conservative, tradition-bound, and narrow rather than liberal, progressive, and universal. The reason was it did not reflect the national spirit. Others included abolitionist parties, workers' parties like the , the who opposed monopolies , and assorted nativist parties who denounced the Roman Catholic Church as a threat to.
Whigs welcomed most of the changes wrought by industrialization but advocated strong government policies that would guide growth and development within the country's existing boundaries; they feared correctly that expansion raised a contentious issue the extension of slavery to the territories. Although American designs on Texas did not disappear, they were put on the backburner for the more immediately important Florida. The aristocracy was considered the top of the social chain. The rival Democratic-Republican Party was created by and , and was dominant after 1800. Increased nationalism is also discussed with the examples of the Monroe Doctrine and Gibbons v Ogden. His coldly intellectual temperament did not win friends.
The rapid population growth and industrialization of the North seemed to doom to an inferior and vulnerable status in the nation. During the early twentieth century, however, the forces of sectionalism seemed less troublesome. During the 1920s, The Midland, a literary journal based in Iowa, led a revolt against the dominance of the publishing world, urging young writers to remain in the Midwest, record the life of their region, and eschew the debilitating commercial influence of eastern publishers. Although the 17th-century Puritan Revolution in England was animated by nationalist sentiment, significant nationalist movements generally did not arise until the late 18th century. In other words, the future, like the past would produce Clays, Calhouns, and Websters, sectional spokespersons who would achieve ascendancy through their ability to accommodate sectional interests and yet preserve the national union. The few convictions won under the Sedition Act only created martyrs to the cause of civil liberties and aroused support for the Republicans. The religious wars of the Reformation set nation against nation, though the strongest loyalty continued to adhere to the sovereign.
Although Washington remained aloof and warned against political parties in his , he generally supported Hamilton and Hamiltonian programs over those of Jefferson. Incidentally, during the years of the John Quincy Adams administration, an adept political strategist from New York, future president Martin Van Buren, was organizing an opposition party. The transportation improve-ments, they argued, did not help them significantly. Manifest destiny did however provide the rhetorical tone for the largest acquisition of U. The Compromise of 1850 caused sectionalism in the Union because it first established California as a free state and turned down the Southern proposal to split California at the 35° parallel; causing the South to be frustrated at the admittance of California. Westerners and Southerners were the most ardent supporters of the war, given their concerns about defending national honor and expanding western settlements, and having access to world markets for their agricultural exports.
From Kentucky came , while Massachusetts produced Secretary of State Adams; a rump congressional caucus put forward. Federalist support was concentrated in the major Northern cities and South Carolina. Senate, three great spokesmen personified the sectional clash and became sectional heroes. The union was preserved, but southern sectionalism remained powerful. Besides domesticity, women were also expected to be pious, pure, and submissive to men. Washington and Hamilton were building a strong national government, with a broad financial base, and the support of merchants and financiers throughout the country.
Believing that Britain could not rely on other sources of food than the United States, Congress and President Jefferson suspended all U. Enacting the program of Treasury Secretary , the government assumed the Revolutionary war debts of the states and the national government, and refinanced them with new federal bonds. In May 1846, Congress declared war on Mexico after Mexican troops massacred a U. They were considered lazy and shiftless, and were often cited by northerners as proof that slavery degraded non-slaveholding whites. For Americans wishing to bridge the gap between the earthly and spiritual worlds, provided a means of communing with the dead. Breaking loose from European models, the Americans developed their own high culture, notably in literature and in higher education.
After the Revolutionary War, the United States had a large to France and others, and the banking system of the fledgling nation was in disarray, as state banks printed their own currency, and the plethora of different made commerce difficult. As the nation united to combat first fascism and then Communism and as millions abandoned the farm for the factory and office, the appeal of agrarian roots and regional folklore diminished. The revolt immediately collapsed, and there was no violence. In a pattern evident in future decades, perceptions of declining fortunes exacerbated sectionalism. In the election campaign that followed, the bank question caused a fundamental division between the merchant, manufacturing and financial interests generally creditors who favored tight money and high interest rates , and the laboring and agrarian sectors, who were often in debt to banks and therefore favored an increased and lower interest rates.
The states that had opposed the War of 1812 felt an increasing decline in political power with the demise of the. Swelled by an immense confidence in the new age, the English people felt upon their shoulders the mission of history, a sense that they were at a great turning point from which a new true reformation and a new liberty would start. The South's reaction to the federal tariffs of the early 1800s stemmed from a belief that tariffs raised the price of manufactured goods and hurt trade with Britain. His advocacy of women's rights and inclusion of women in the leadership of the Society caused a rift within the movement. Their deep influence was felt in the. These domestic difficulties were compounded by international complications: France, angered by American approval in 1795 of the with its great enemy Britain proclaimed that food and war material bound for British ports were subject to seizure by the French navy. Clay's specified that all duties more than 20% of the value of the goods imported were to be reduced by easy stages, so that by 1842, the duties on all articles would reach the level of the moderate tariff of 1816.
. The centralizing federal government was, then, deemed an instrument for making Americans aware that they were not only Americans, but, for example, southerners or midwesterners as well, with a regional baggage from the past that should not be jettisoned. Cultural Regionalism A cultural regionalism, however, was simmering during the 1920s, and in the 1930s it came to a boil. In 1799, after a series of naval battles with the French known as the , full-scale war seemed inevitable. For the following seventy-five years, the of Lincoln could make no substantial headway in the South, but remained a sectional party appealing only to the North and the West. In 1848, the region came under American control and later formed the Territory. Congress passed the , which established the entire.