As a result, though the population of the subcontinent increased dramatically from about 200 million in 1872 the year of the first almost universal census to more than 319 million in 1921, the population may have declined slightly between 1895 and 1905. Secondly, as the schools had to take recognition from the University, they had to give importance on teacher training and raising the academic standard in order to send their students for matriculation examination. He saw that Indian universities had become out-moded. They were all examining bodies. Few Indians, however, were admitted to the ; and, among the first handful who were, one of the brightest, 1848—1925 , was dismissed dishonourably at the earliest pretext and turned from loyal participation within the government to active nationalist agitation against it.
Archived from on 31 December 2010. It is true that Lord Curzon did yeoman service to the cause of Indian education. The functions of universities were enlarged. Provincial roots of Indian , however, may be traced to the beginning of the era of crown rule in Bombay, Bengal, and Madras. Physical education was another useful subject introduced in the curriculum. The recommendations of the Indian Universities Commission were incorporated in the Government of India Resolution, 1904. Steps were also taken for the withdrawl of affiliation of the colleges which fell within the areas outside the newly defined territorial limits of the University, according to the procedure laid down for disaffiliation of colleges under the New Regulations.
A number of denominational institutions sprang up in all parts of the country. Lord Curzon set up a University Education Commission in 1902 to enquire into the condition of the universities and improving their constitution and working. Thibaw sent envoys to , and in January 1885 the French signed a treaty of trade with the kingdom of Ava and dispatched a French consul to Mandalay. He also passed the Ancient Monument Preservation Act. No unrecognized school could get government grant.
This type of method was to be adopted where competent teachers were available. They thought that his reform had some deep political motives. They also feared that this would stand in the way of Indian private enterprise playing an active role in the promotion of higher education. The thinking in Europe about purely examining universities had changed and hence universities should be first-rate teaching centres. Thirdly, it is worth mentioning that it was Lord Curzon who insisted that mother tongue should be the medium of instruction up to middle level.
The number of members in the Senate was large. By this the un-recognized institutions received a check. Affiliation and disaffiliation of colleges would now require the approval of government. These bodies should submit their budget to the Director of Public Instruction through their Inspector. The result was that all the secondary schools came under the control of the government. For seven years 1899-1905 Lord Curzon went on toiling hard to reform every aspect of Indian education.
Reforms were also introduced in agriculture education, department of Agriculture was established and arrangement was made for agricultural research. On the basis of the recommendations of the commission the Indian Universities Act of 1904 was passed. This paved the way for introducing mother tongue as a medium of instruction in secondary schools in later stages. There were, moreover, two turbulent national mainstreams flowing beneath the deceptively placid official surface of British administration: the larger, headed by the Indian National Congress, which led eventually to the birth of India, and the smaller Muslim one, which acquired its organizational skeleton with the founding of the in 1906 and led to the creation of. He raised the Government grant to local authorities from one third to one half of the total expenditure.
No new university should be set up. A good number of upper primary and lower primary schools sprang up. All members should be elected. After 1869, with the completion of the and the steady expansion of steam transport reducing the sea passage between Britain and India from about three months to only three weeks, British women came to the East with ever greater , and the British officials they married found it more appealing to return home with their British wives during furloughs than to tour India as their predecessors had done. Do you think Lord Curzon was successful in improving the condition of secondary education in India? Two more universities grew up in the Punjab and the North-West Frontier Provinces.
A distinction was also made as regards curricular for rural and urban primary schools. This had received widespread criticism. He observed that there were differences in pay scales of the teachers in different states. The jurisdiction of the University is, at present, limited to the confines of a few districts of West Bengal. At the beginning of crown rule, the first graduates of those universities, reared on the works and ideas of , , and Thomas Macaulay, sought positions that would help them improve themselves and society at the same time.
Out of the areas over which the University formerly exercised its jurisdiction, Ceylon went under the University of Madras; the states and provinces included in the Rajputana and Central India Agencies, the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, the Central Provinces, and Ajmere and Marwara fell within the orbit of the University of Allahabad; and the Punjab, the North Western province and the state of Kashmir were placed under the Punjab University. List the other reforms that Lord Curzon introduced in India. Although two Indian members— G. So far as secondary education was concerned, the G. Economic policy and development Economically, it was an era of increased commercial agricultural production, rapidly expanding trade, early industrial development, and severe famine. The Indian Universities Act 1904 led to improvement in College education.
The earliest act regarding the rural credit was the Land Improvements Loans Act of 1883. The Commission recommended the transference of the control of primary education to the newly set up District and Municipal Boards. The main recommendations were embodied in an Act, viz. Even then it was a period of activity in the field of elementary education. Although the Government fixed certain rules and regulations for the Government aided schools there was no such regulation for the privately managed schools, most of which were inefficiently and poorly staffed and poorly equipped. The viceroy, governed 1869—72 , met to confer with Shīr ʿAlī at in 1869 and, though reaffirming Anglo-Afghan friendship, resisted all requests by the emir for more permanent and practical support for his still precarious regime.