Vesting of a proprietary interest of the workers in the industries in which they are employed. The clo sed -sh op cla use has bee n dec la red ill ega l. Socialise industrial activity by involving the government participation as an employer. On a wo rld scal e, tra de uni ons ente red an era of con ces sio ns to emp loy ers in ter ms of wa ge s. Employees work with great zeal with the feeling in mind that the interest of employer and employees is one and the same, i. Gov ern men t wa s we lco me to pro mot e eco nom ic growth by supporting the contractualization of indus- tri al rel ati ons.
It also results in increased efficiency of workers. Coll ectiv e barg aini ng beca me a constitutional right for wage-earners. In this context an Act was introduced called trade disputes Act 1929. Trade unions have made it their responsibility to address deep-rooted inequalities that may arise within the Nigerian state Okolie, 2010;Fajana, 2007;Otobo, 2000;Adewumi, 1997. The paper allows a reflection on how to improve the success rates of business start-ups through the practice of apprenticeship along with classroom learning.
In the ethical face, Industrial Relation content strong nominative principles about workers and the employment relationship, especially the rejection of treating labour as a commodity in favor of seeing workers As human beings in democratic communities and tired to Human Rights. However, the colonial dynamics of the union movement along with the aggressiveness of alien capital, the ambivalence of the native capital and the experience of the outside political leadership frustrated the process of building up of industrial relations institutions. The paper concludes that the present day labourmanagement relations system of Nigeria can be properly appreciated if a cursory examination is conducted into its colonial history vis-à-vis its post-colonial military government and labour reforms that are designed mainly to establish the legal prescriptions and proscriptions for labour activities, employee-employer relations and labour relations with the government and its regulatory agencies. Kaufman traces their development from a golden age in the 1950s through a period of gradual decline that accelerated in the 1980s. Critics of this model of industrial relations argue that the colonialists imposed voluntarist employment relations practice on Nigerians based on the predominant socio-political and economic philosophy in Britain without taking due consideration of the unique culture, principles, level of civilisation and prevailing employment relations practice in Nigeria Adebisi, 2013;George et al. What are the multiple sourc es of their dynamic s? Co mmo ns and his fol low ers we re not pur e and simp le acad emic s. The main aspects of industrial relations can be identified as follows: 1.
The work keeps going even while management and labor are negotiating contracts. Industrial relations problems can arise where employees believe that too much effort is required from them for a given set of rewards or that work discipline is harsh or inequitable. A safe workplace where employees can do their jobs without the risk of injury or exposure to toxic chemicals works out better for everyone. In the Science building face, Industrial Relation is part of the Social Sciences, and its seeks to understand the employment relationship and its Institutions through high-quality rigorous research. It helps in promoting new industrial organizations in the country thereby increasing employment opportunities.
Good Industrial Relations relations in enable the smooth running of an organization. Scholars affirm that in the 21 st century, Nigeria's employment relations system is best described as a hybrid: the system depicts a combination of voluntarism and state intervention. This relationship undergoes change from thesis to antithesis and then to synthesis. This group comprises Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and the Scandinavian nations. At the same period in a number of countries, though not all, membership of uni ons sta rte d to dec lin e. The Net her la nds and Belgium may be included in this group, although both have a plurality of trade unions.
Government regulates a variety of issues, except in Italy. Reduction in Industrial Disputes Good Industrial Relations reduce the industrial disputes which help to promote cooperation and increasing production. Current statistics show that 75-80% of most business start-ups tend to fail within the first three years. Even within these categories, individual companies have a wide variety of approaches. Thus, it is evident that good industrial relations is the basis of higher production with minimum cost and higher profits.
The relations between the employees and employers were like master and servants. The joint consultative institutions were established primarily to arrive at uniform and agreeable labour policy. The Nigerian industrial relations have failed due to governmental interference on policies and unpopular anti-labour law Genty et al. This means, continuous employment for all from managers to workers. The industrial space lies ultimately in a transformed outlook on the part of both. In addition actors may seek one of the other objectives as a means to achieving their primary objective.
Dunlop, a sociologist at the University of Wisconsin, working between the 1950s and the 1970s, went further in the same direction. In each country some of the trade unions began to adapt and mod- ernize their strategies and structures. Avoid unnecessary interference of the government, as far as possible and practicable, in the matters of relationship between workers and management. Keep, as far as possible, strikes, lockouts and gheraos at bay by enhancing the economic status of workers. Every company needs employees, who in turn need to be compensated for their efforts. The Janta Government in 1978 made, of course, a half-hearted attempt to reform industrial relations. The bre akd own of the population changed from a majority of blue-collar workers to an increasing proportion of white-collar employees, in keeping with a growing proportion of women at work and a shift from industry to services.
But understanding the industrial relationship, corporate human resource management practices, labor union strategies, and work-related public policies and laws requires understanding how values and assumptions form the ideologies and frames of reference used by scholars, practitioners, and policymakers. Unfortunately, the attempt met with strong opposition from all unions. The industrial peace lies ultimately in a transformed outlook on the part of both. All of that reduces productivity. This paper highlights the valuable traditional practice of apprenticeship, which effectively produced successful entrepreneurs, compared to today's high failure rate of start-ups.
About the Author Fraser Sherman has written about every aspect of business: how to start one, how to keep one in the black, the best business structure, the details of financial statements. The objectives of collective bargaining are to influence industrial relations so that employees get what they need. It demonstrates the importance of the role of the state in employment relations and the degree to which its participation impacts on the policies that guide industrial relations practice in Nigeria Adebisi, 2013;George et al. It helps in achieving the targets, goals, and objectives of the organization. In other words, complete unity of thought and action is the main achievement of industrial peace.