Some otic ganglion neurons project directly to vasculature in the jaws and the cerebral circulation Walters et al. The small vesicle size could actually be a consequence of an earlier role in placode development. It opens out into the oral cavity near the second upper molar. Sympathetic ganglia are located in the paravertebral chain or in the prevertebral ganglia; which are collections of ganglia situated along the midline immediately ventral to the aorta near the branch points of the coeliac and mesenteric arteries. Damage to facial nerve or its branches will cause paralysis of the facial muscles.
The otic ganglion lies medial to the pterygopalatine branch of the internal carotid artery and beneath the trigeminal ganglion from which it is separated by the sphenoid bone. The others are the , , and. The failure of the endolymphatic duct to form correlates with the loss of Fgf3 expression in hindbrain rhombomeres 5 and 6, which are located immediately adjacent to the dorsomedial site on the otic vesicle from which the endolymphatic duct emerges Mahmood et al. In the rat there is no direct connection between the glossopharyngeal nerve and the otic ganglion, as is the case in man. It is in relation, laterally, with the trunk of the mandibular nerve at the point where the motor and sensory roots join; medially, with the cartilaginous part of the , and the origin of the ; posteriorly, with the. These branches innervate the muscles of facial expression. Here, the fibres synapse, and the postganglionic fibers pass by communicating branches to the , which conveys them to the.
Both of these features of the Fgf3 null phenotype could be correlated with the expression pattern of Fgf3 expression in the period immediately prior to the initial phenotypic effects Mansour et al. The otic phenotype of zebrafish Fgf3 morphants appears to initiate earlier than that of most mouse embryos missing Fgf3 only. The lesser petrosal nerve is a continuation of the glossopharyngeal nerve after it exits the skull via the jugular foramen and innervates the. Salivatory neurons innervate the submandibular and sublingual glands in the rat: horseradish peroxidase study. They produce vasodilator and secretomotor effects. The autonomic innervation controls the rate of saliva production. Low-level expression of Fgfr2b in the mesenchyme is consistent with this idea, but it is not known what signal it might induce to communicate to the developing neuroblasts Pirvola et al.
Furthermore, Fgf3 is also expressed at later stages in the developing sensory epithelium and a conditional mutant would also permit assessment of its potential role in sensory development, independent of its morphogenetic role in endolymphatic duct formation. Tracy J Wright, Suzanne L Mansour, in , 2003 a Fgf3 Mice that are homozygous for a null allele of Fgf3 have inner ear morphogenesis and otic ganglion formation defects that are highly variable Mansour et al. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. The investigators injected 10 patients suffering from intractable chronic cluster headache with botulinum toxin in the sphenopalatine ganglion. This result raises the intriguing possibility that some hair cells and sensory neurons share a common progenitor, although lineage analysis has not yet addressed this question. Postganglionic axons leave the ganglion mainly via the auriculotemporal nerve to reach the parotid gland Kuntz and Richins, 1946.
Removal of just one copy of Fgf10 from mouse Fgf3 mutant homozygotes, however, causes a reduction in the size of the otic vesicle Wright and Mansour, 2003 , similar to that seen in zebrafish Fgf3 morphants. This expression has been studied in more detail in the chicken, where Deltal expression has been shown to coincide with early neuronal markers, although the two are never coexpressed within the same cell, suggesting that Deltal is downregulated prior to neuronal differentiation Adam, et al. The fibers pass through the ganglion without relay and reach the via the. They leave the glossopharyngeal nerve by its branch and then pass via the and the to the otic ganglion. Connections Parasympathetic motor secretomotor : From lesser petrosal nerve. Basically, the nerves that give innervation to this structure from the brain are called preganglionic before the ganglion while the ones giving innervation beyond this structure to the organ or tissue are called postganglionic after the ganglion.
The salivatory centre in the rat. Die Lokalisation des Speichelzentrums bei der Katze. General somatic sensory fibres innervate the area of skin behind the ear, pass to the superior ganglion and end in the nucleus and tract of the trigeminal nerve. Thus it was decided for this study on injection towards the otic ganglion, to explore the safety of 12. The effects on the cochlea are somewhat controversial, because one group reported an absence of innervation to the outer hair cells Schimmang, et al. Increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system inhibits saliva secretion, via vasoconstriction.
The secretions of the parotid gland are transported to the oral cavity by the Stensen duct. The auriculotemporal nerve then carries parasympathetic fibres from the otic ganglion to the parotid gland. Parasympathetic fibres travel within a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, the lesser petrosal nerve, to reach the otic ganglion. However, an additional preganglionic pathway runs via the chorda tympani nerve, carrying preganglionic input from the facial nerve Reichert and Poth, 1933; Kuntz, 1945; Mitchell, 1953a; Diamant and Wiberg, 1965; Kuchiiwa et al. Substance P is a functional neurotransmitter in the rat parotid gland. The parasympathetic innervation to the parotid gland has a complex path. It surrounds the origin of the nerve to the.
The cell bodies lie in the inferior ganglion. All postsynaptic parasympathetics will use some branch of the Trigeminal Nerve to get from one of four parasympatheic ganglia Otic, Ciliary, Submandibular, and Pteryopalatine to their destinations in either smooth muscle or glandular tissue secretomotor. This system, via connections in the ciliary ganglion, distributes to the pupillary constrictor muscle, resulting in constriction of the ipsilateral direct and contralateral consensual pupils. They mediate cholinergic secretion of the parotid gland, and contribute to vasodilation in the gland and jaw vasculature Izumi, 1999. Other primary sensory neurons from the superior ganglion innervate a small area behind the ear.