These methods mean that the original intent of the person who created the legislation is taken into consideration when interpreting the law. Fair Trade Laws According to the Federal Trade Commission, fair trade laws once enforced a minimum price for fair trade products as a way to prevent unfair trade practices among retailers and give small businesses an even playing field. The pricing strategy tends to be one of the more critical components of the marketing mix and is focused on generating revenue and ultimately profit for the company. Make Marketing Mix Decisions Once the segments and positioning is somewhat in place, the marketing mix planning comes into effect. Costs are affected by volume, and volume is affected by price. One of these tools is contribution and the other breakeven analysis. So, the benefit of using the gold as a hedging tool against inflation has been felt by investors for a long time.
The Perceived Risk Associated With the Product A consumer may opt for a more expensive brand if the brand will minimize the certain risks. For instance, consider a case whereby a firm plans to upgrade its product by either establishing its own packaging plant or outsourcing the service from outside parties. For example, software traditionally was purchased as a product in which customers made a one-time payment and then owned a perpetual license to the software. It is important that the company anticipates the discounts that it will have to grant to gain and retain business and adjust its list price accordingly. Similarly any promotion decisions will also require additional financial input. You have probably noticed that restaurants offer senior citizens and children discounted menus. The management has to assume some desired price-volume relationship for determining costs.
Sensitivity to price change will vary from consumer to consumer. Costing and Pricing Decisions Name: Institution: Course: Tutor: Date: Costing and Pricing Decisions One of the core functions of a manager is making decisions in order to run an enterprise in the most effective and efficient manner while generating profits. They wait for arrival of a rival product with competitive price. After Macbeth committed murder and was king he was still not happy, his 'mind full of scorpions' This was because Banquo's children prophecised to be King and his presence threatened his Kingship. This is called skimming strategy and it is used to cover the costs of research and development especially if the product is innovative. If total costs exceed total revenue, the company suffers a loss. If this price is raised later on, the existing customers may feel like they are being unfairly burdened.
Often, these objectives include: 1. Sunk costs Sunk costs involve costs that have been incurred thus they cannot be altered. Many consumers would readily choose Peak Milk above other brands because of the perceived quality. These are often perceived as the more interesting aspects of the product and marketing mix. Macbeth was the Thane of Glamis by 'Sinel's Death' and when he was given the news that he was the Thane of Cawdor as the previous committed treason and was stripped from his tittle 'What he hath lost noble Macbeth has won' he was deeply influenced by the witches prophecies. While bait-and-switch pricing is illegal in many states, stores can add disclaimers to their ads stating that there are no rain checks or that limited quantities are available to justify trying to get you to buy a different product.
In some circumstances in order to be more successful, the product needs to be modified or the way it is positioned in order to make it acceptable to local tastes. For example, uniforms may signify that you work at a particular restaurant, play in a school band, or are a part of an athletic team. As volume decreases, full cost increases. Apart from the effect of price on the consumer demand that we have outlined above, consumers may take cognizance of other factors before they decide to purchase a product. While deciding it,price elasticity of demand becomes important for him.
. Marketing Strategy and the Marketing Mix Before the product is developed, the marketing strategy is formulated, including target market selection and product positioning. Macbeth was his Kinsmen and subject, he received golden opinions and was only honored of late. For most firms, this information cannot be developed at a reasonable cost. Effect on distributors and retailers : When products are sold through intermediaries like retailers, the list price to customers must reflect the margins required by them Sometimes list prices will be high because middlemen want higher margins. From a legal standpoint, a firm is not free to price its products at any level it chooses. There are several types of discounts, as outlined below.
The simple rule is that the business charges such price that should not only cover all of the costs incurred in manufacturing, distribution and promotion of the product or service, but also provide a fair return on the invested money. For the remainder of this tutorial, we look at factors that affect how marketers set price. The point at which total costs equal total revenue is known as the The amount in units or dollars where total revenue equals total costs. These factors are qualitative and ambiguous. By adopting a suitable price policy the firm can restrict the entry of rivals. For example, each car produced includes the variable cost of tires, metal sheets, Misc items etc that change with the increase or decrease in the quantity of production and sales.
Cost: Cost is the third major factor. The legal and regulatory laws set prices on various products, such as insurance and dairy items. This means that the issues that prevail within the business organization and upon which the organization has control are included in this category. Today, we shall look at critical inputs that inform pricing decisions. These steps are interrelated and are not necessarily performed in the above order.
As production level increases further, average cost increases because the plant becomes inefficient as a result of clutter, frequent breakdown, expanding market and other factors. Internal Factors - When setting price, marketers must take into consideration several factors w … hich are the result of company decisions and actions. For example, a trade discount may be offered to a small retailer who may not purchase in quantity but nonetheless performs the important retail function. The marketers should set the prices as per the organizational goals. Lifestyle The general outlook of the consumer will influence his preferences. Finally, the label can promote a brand. Political factors : Where price is out of line with manufacturing costs, political pressure may act to force down prices.