Scipio disembarked his army and marched to confront Hannibal, who, by now, had moved on. He was adopted by P. Scipio suddenly conducted a rapid march south along the coast from the mouth of the Ebro to surprise the city. For description of this battle, see separate essay. Their flanks ultimately routed, the usually reliable African mercenaries in the center also ran for camp. Reaction against his generous foreign policy—with possible clemency to Hannibal after Zama—and against his encouragement of Greek culture in Roman life led to his downfall amid personal and political rivalries. On his return to Italy, he advanced at once to meet Hannibal.
Others, frightened by the blasts of massed Roman trumpeters, ran down their own cavalry. He is especially interested in personalities and human character. Scipio's physical appearance is shown on some coins minted at Carthago Nova Cartagena which almost certainly bear his portraitand also probably on a signet ring found near Naples. The same year Hannibal, who had fled after Magnesia, first to Crete and then to Bithynia, committed suicide at the age of 67. He earned a great reputation as a patron of Greek literature and of Roman writers, notably Terence and Laelius, and he was the lifelong friend of Polybius, his protégé.
But if you consider even that to be excessive, prepare for war, for you have found peace intolerable. But Scipio is merely a foil for Hart in promoting his own favorite theories the strategy of the indirect approach. Some legends, such as the visit by a serpent, and Scipio's daily sojourn in the temple are late additions, in the time of Augustus. Therefore, if to the terms upon which peace was formerly about to be made, as it seemed, you are adding some kind of compensation for the ships loaded with supplies that were taken by force during the armistice, and for violence done to my envoys, I have reason to bring it before the council. Elected consul in 205 bc, he invaded North Africa with a volunteer army and defeated at Zama in 202 bc, earning the honorary surname Africanus. Hannibal chose to prevent this last triumph for Roman arms.
This proved too much for the Carthaginians, who broke in a rout. Bibliography See Polybius, xxxv, 4; xxxix; Florus ii, 15,17,18; Appian, Punica, 72, 98, 113-131; Hispanica 48-95; Bellica Civica i, 19; Plutarch, lives of Aemilius Paullus, 22, Tiberius Gracchus, 21; Cicero, De Orator Scipio, Publius Cornelius, He was consul in 218, the first year of the Second Punic war. He was adopted by the eldest son of see under , family. Instead he hastened to met the trained Roman legions with his ill-organized mass of Asiatic levies. He was later in 197. Scipio placed his Italian cavalry on the left and Numidian cavalry on the right. He was with his father at the Ticino 218 , and he survived Cannae 216.
So between them this family did much of the conquering for Rome - Spain, Corsica, Carthage, Macedonia, Asia. This philosophy insisted on the rationality of the universe and the existence of natural causes for historical events. Publius delayed the trial until the anniversary of Zama and then broke up the proceedings by announcing he was going to the Capitol to give thanks for the victory. His wife was Aemilia, daughter of Aemilius Paullus. Missing Hannibal at the Rhone by a day or two, P.
Total Roman losses in this conquest of a sub-continent were 24 cavalrymen and 300 infantry. Therefore in 206 Hasdrubal left Gades and moved to Ilipa near modern Corduba with 50,000 infantry, 4-5,000 cavalry, and 32 elephants. Scipio returned to Italy to take command of the troops fighting in. Both his father and uncle were killed. Battle of Zama After his capture of Tunis, the Carthaginians sought peace terms, but Hannibal's subsequent return to Africa led to their renewing the war in 202. Publius Cornelius Aemilianus Publius Cornelius Aemilianus c.
He sailed with army from Pisa to Massilia to try to block Hannibal's advance to Italy. He continued the Iberian campaigns until 211, when he was killed during the defeat of his army at the river by the Carthaginians and their Iberian allies under. The chosen 500 scaled the wall unnoticed and quickly made their way to the main gate just as the legionnaires outside began smashing away at it with heavy axes. Publius was so angry he tore up their account books on the floor of the Senate, although the records would have shown them innocent. He was ordered to sail with his army from Pisa to Massilia on the Rhone to try to block Hannibal's advance to Italy. Emerging as the ideal statesman during the century of revolution, Cicero chose Scipio as the central figure for his dialogue On the Commonwealth and celebrated Scipio's lifelong friendship with Laelius in his essay On Friendship. He fought at age 17 by his father's side at Pydna in 168.
He instituted a rigorous schedule of training designed to improve the ability of his men to operate as individuals and in small units. This Scipio failed to prevent. His eldest son, Publicus Cornelius Scipio, adopted the younger of the first two sons of his mother's brother, Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus victor at Pynda , the conqueror of Macedon, and this Scipio - Aemilianus, Publius Cornelius, the Younger 185 - 129 was the final destroyer of Carthage in the Third Punic War, gaining the surname Africanus as well. The advance became a rush as thousands of screaming Romans hurled themselves upon the Carthaginian line. Victory was complete, and the long war ended; Scipio granted comparatively lenient terms to Carthage. Family background was born into one of the great families in Rome; his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather had all been consuls in their day.