Moreover, economic development paves way for growth of cities and towns. Land degradation reduces our options to meet both food demands and environmental needs. This study assessed the bioleaching of heavy metals from hospital sewage sludge using cassava peels fermentation extracts. It is necessary that studies should be undertaken on the patterns of urbanization observe the process so as to lessen its unfavourable consequences. People who live near the rotting garbage and raw sewage fall easy victims to several diseases like dysentery, malaria, plague, jaundice, diarrhoea, typhoid, etc.
Urbanisation is taking place at a faster rate in India. Social Characteristics: Most of the squatter households belong to lower income group. In India, the coefficient of correlation between the proportion of urban population to total population and the level of per capita income is estimated at 0. The recent upsurge of 92. Degree of urbanization varies widely among the States of the country. Like other problems, the problem of crimes increases with the increase in urbanisation.
They have become more modernized. For Daily Must Read Newspaper articles,. This causes diseases like blood dysentery, diarrhea, malaria, typhoid, jaundice and conjunctivitis, which stalk them all the year around. Municipal own revenue are generated by municipal own revenue through taxes and fee levied by them. Festivals also mark brotherhood in an otherwise varied and diverse society. Employment opportunities: In rural sector people have to depend mainly on agriculture for their livelihood. With its growth, the town performs varied and complex functions and more people move to work or shop.
Thus economic development of a country assists in its process of urbanization. Mumbai is located in a keel-line depression, which also happens to be the main railway artery. This was followed by a still higher growth of 46 per cent during the decade of 1971-81. This is probably higher than the rural. The risk are higher in urban areas owing to density and overcrowding. Resource crisis faced by the municipalities and illicit growth of the cities are two major causes of this pitiable state of affairs.
Criteria used to define urban can include population size, space, density, and economic organization. At least 75 % of male main working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits ; and c. It is a finite process-a cycle through which a nation passes as they evolved from agrarian to industrial society Davis and Golden, 1954. Today, it breaks down frequently with waste about eight million more people than it was designed for. Industrialization is processes that widely utilize inanimate sources of energy to improve human productivity. In larger cities the proportion of families occupying one room or less was as high as 67 per cent.
Presently, India already has numerous mega cities. A distinction has to be drawn between squatter settlements and shanty towns. The Tenth plan 2002-07 recognized the fact that urbanization played a key role in accelerating the economic growth in 1980s and 1990s as a result of the economic liberalization and also stressed that without strengthening the urban local bodies, the goal of urbanization cannot be achieved. The terminal case is that of Katihar Bihar where, because of the peculiar bowl-like configuration of the city and the non-existence of a drainage system. It has certain unique features which are as follows:- Ø Lopsided urbanization induces growth of class-I cities. The drains, which are open, serve as depositors for road sweepings and also human wastes. P Dash 2003 : Rural Non-farm Employment: An Analysis of Rural Urban Interdependences, Working Paper no.
There is growing trend of declining ratio of own revenue. Methodology: This study is descriptive research. Decline in quality of living for urban dwellers: Urbanization is major concern for management researchers because it decline in quality of living for urban inhabitants. It highlights the impact of Urbanization on Indian Society through multi-dimensional perspectives. The eleventh plan 2007-2012 introduced some innovative changes through capacity building, increasing the efficiency and productivity of the cities, dismantling the monopoly of public sector over urban infrastructure, using technology as a tool for rapid urbanization. After independence, the shift from rural-agrarian to urban-industrial-service led economy changed the population distribution across the settlements. Correspondingly, Childe offers a listing of ten characteristics of an urban civilization.
Large cities are structurally weak and formal instead of being functional entities because of inadequate economic base. Economic opportunities: It is general perception that living standard of urban area is superior as compared to village areas. The growing cost of houses comparison to the income of the urban middle class, has made it impossible for majority of lower income groups and are residing in congested accommodation and many of those are devoid of proper ventilation, lighting, water supply, sewage system, etc. They are called bustees in Kolkata, jhuggi- jhoparies in Delhi, Jhoparpattis or Chawl in Mumbai and Cheri in Chennai. The office of an empowered mayor instead of the municipal commissioner must take responsibility for administrative co-ordination internally between municipal departments, and externally with state and central government agencies. As the rural agriculture sectors is shrinking day by day the challenges before the urban sector to provide viable employment to migrating population will be a daunting task in the coming year. Here making, water harvesting compulsory will be beneficial Urban Crime Prevention of urban crime is another challenge before the government of States having more number of urban areas and particularly metropolitan cities.
R Publishing Corporation, New Delhi. In India, slums are one or two-room hutments mostly occupying government and public lands. The building materials and household solid wastes are dumped on the public places. Squatter settlements are constructed in an uncontrolled manner and badly lack essential public services such as water, light, sewage. Squatter settlements have following three characteristics in common. But soon the demand for suburban homes causes the land between ribbon settlements to be built and made accessible by constructing new roads.
The rapid growth of the largest metropolitan cities in the twentieth century is now beginning to slow down whereas the smaller secondary cities are growing faster. Resource crunch faced by the municipalities and unauthorised growth of the cities are two major causes of this pathetic state of affairs. It the State which provides good transport system. In rainy season, water over flows and spreads into streets presenting a dingy view, promoting unhygienic conditions and causing outbreak of numerous diseases. Urban centers in India are characterized by extreme heterogeneity in terms of their socio-economic characteristics. But the absolute increase during the next three decades was of the order of 94 million during 1951-81.