This is rather confined to cases where the actor's behaviour is meaningfully oriented to that of others. The classification of action according to Max Weber may be co-related with the relations of solidarity or independence between science and politics. This may be the most difficult to distinguish from conscious action in that action that was initially instrumental, value-rational, or affectual social action may become habitual, traditional, and not consciously considered at a later time. · Dogmatic disciplines such as jurispridence, logic, ethics that seek to discern true or valid meanings p. Ideal types are used as a tool to look at real cases and compare them to the ideal types to see where they fall. A social relationship can be of a very fleeting character or of varying degrees of permanence. An accidental collision of bicycles is not a social action as they are not a result of any conscious thought process.
· Value-rational action may be more difficult to understand sociologically since the sociologist may have different values and ends than other social actors. · Oriented — some direction or purpose in the action. Talcott Parsons criticises Weber for stressing too much the element of voluntary subjective meaning of the actor. People slaughter animals for sacrifices and also used to justify sati in the name of cultural values. When relating to affective, one may go to school just because they enjoy learning. Micrological theories of economy consider acts of a group of individuals.
Thus, modern societies are undergoing the process of rationalization. Social action may be influenced by an action of past, present or future. A crowd that may collect at a place does not necessarily indulge in the social action unless it starts behaving with one another. For example, group prayer or attendance at a memorial service may create the goal of spiritual peace for the individual; performing music for others or creating a work of art to be publicly displayed may be a means by which an artist achieves aesthetic goals. Schultz criticises Weber for not providing a satisfactory account of meaningful action since if meaning is too much divorced from the actor it becomes an objective category imposed by the sociologists. Similarly, '' is commonly used as a shorthand to refer to the circular relationship of cause and effect between which Weber was integral in hypothesising. An example would be putting on clothes or relaxing on Sundays.
. Weber conceives of sociology as a comprehensive science of social action. Sociology 319 January 15-17, 2003 Max Weber — Theory of social action The reading for this section is Max Weber, Economy and Society, volume 1, pp. Social Action For Weber, meaning is basic to defining social action. Some respect women and give them seat in bus,others may help elderly people.
Most of the social action and interpretavists perspectives deny the existence of a clear social structure that directs human behaviour. Four types of social action. By contrast, action theories are micro theories, which look at small-scale interactions. Among the types of action that have meaning attached to them and result from conscious consideration, Weber notes the following. Rationality means that the actions taken are analyzed and calculated for the greatest amount of self -gain and efficiency. When aspirations are not fulfilled there is internal unrest. This classification of types of action serves Weber in two ways.
The typology of actions is therefore the most abstract level of the conceptual system applicable to the social field. For the latter, it may also be more difficult to verify circumstances and considerations made. Weber provides little analysis of why people adhere to maxims and conventions. The qualitative method investigates the whyand how of decision making, not just what, where, when. These norms serve to make organized social action possible; that is they routinize and formalize social interaction among individuals who, for whatever reason are committed to serving the organization. For example if someone eat food with their bare hands and someone asks why are you not eating with fork and knife? It might be worthwhile to consider actions of a plurality of actors that might not be social relationships in the Weberian sense. These demands seem to weigh on the society and at times can make them feel immoral.
They were of the view that social action is done by abiding the universal laws of human behaviour. Cohen also considers Weber to have no theory of inequality within the concept of meaningful action p. No social action is purely just one of the four types. In item 6, Weber notes that the content of these regularized social relationships can become maxims — forms of action that are adhered to and expected to be adhered to, at least on average and approximately. While these may be formal institutions such as a workplace or school, many of them are formed on a more voluntary basis — institutions such as family, peer groups, or friendship.
This action should be considered as social, for the reason that, his action was influenced by his friends. These demands have posed several problems even legal formalism has been put to the test. The covert theme is that the ultimate origin of the meanings of actions is to be found in charismatic religious movements and these absolute values dig their own graves with the inevitable logic of fate. The classification of types of action to a certain extent governs the Weberian interpretation of the contemporary era. In the case of the individual, Cohen notes how this means conduct that the actor subjectively orients to the behaviour of others. Weber was actually very depressed about this and had a mental breakdown towards the end of his life.