Psychologists also study the behind behavior by looking at how exposure to chemicals affects the body and behavior. This longstanding question is known in psychology as the nature-versus-nurture debate, and is a central question in developmental psychology. The field of social psychology studies topics at both the intrapersonal level pertaining to the individual , such as emotions and attitudes, and the interpersonal level pertaining to groups , such as aggression and attraction. Cultural psychology is often confused with cross-cultural psychology ; however, it is distinct in that cross-cultural psychologists generally use culture as a means of testing the universality of psychological processes, rather than determining how local cultural practices shape psychological processes. The whole movement had evolved from the early philosophers, such as Aristotle and Plato.
Atypical Behaviors, Thoughts, and Inner Experiences Behaviors, thoughts, and inner experiences that are atypical, distressful, dysfunctional, and sometimes even dangerous may be signs of a disorder. In particular, the areas that have been studied include sensation and perception, emotion, learning and memory, movement and control, motivation, language, sleep, reasoning and consciousness. It drives individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways; in essence, it is what makes each individual unique. These include for phobias step-by-step exposed to a feared stimulus at once and aversion therapy. Psychologists work to distinguish psychological disorders from inner experiences and behaviors that are merely situational, idiosyncratic, or unconventional. During the 1930s, Gestalt psychologists such as Kurt Lewin were instrumental in developing the field as something separate from the behavioral and psychoanalytic schools that were dominant during that time.
Freud believed that each of us must pass through a series of stages during childhood, and that if we lack proper nurturing during a particular stage, we may become stuck or fixated in that stage. Scans — physiology and activity across the brain can be gauged using various techniques e. A person who washes their hands 40 times per day and a person who claims to hear the voices of demons exhibit behaviors and inner experiences that most would regard as abnormal. Anti-anxiety drugs tranquillizers and sleeping tablets Tranquillizers and sleeping tablets are very effective for short term, but can quickly become less effective and even produce the symptoms they are designed to reduce rebound effect. Psychoanalytic theory often had difficulty making predictions that could be tested using rigorous experimental methods. The behaviorist school of thought maintains that behaviors can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such as thoughts and beliefs.
Psychosocial development involves emotions, personality, and social relationships. With any of these theories, it is important to keep in mind that the culture in which we live is one of the most important environmental factors that shapes our personalities. In other cultures, however, such visions may be regarded as normal experiences that are respected and valued Bourguignon, 1970. This is because a behavioral psychologist is going to look at what we have been rewarded or punished for, while a cognitive psychologist wants to explain actions in terms of the way we interpret our environment. Freud believes that events in our childhood can have a significant impact on our behavior as adults.
Researchers who take a on psychology might look at how genetics influence different behaviors or how damage to specific areas of the brain influence behavior and personality. These traits may vary from culture to culture based on differing values, needs, and beliefs. Diagnosing Disorder The diagnosis and classification of psychological disorders is essential in studying and treating psychopathology. Maybe you didn't feel like going out dancing with your friends that weekend or going for a drink with your coworkers after work. The brain can influence many types of behavior. Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines of psychological study, including social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology, educational psychology, and behavioral economics.
The top of the pyramid is self-actualization, in which a person is believed to have reached a state of harmony and understanding. Psychodynamic theory is an approach to psychology that studies the psychological forces underlying human behavior, feelings, and emotions, and how they may relate to early childhood experience. These findings suggest the heritability of some personality traits, implying that some aspects of our personalities are largely controlled by genetics. Each person has an idiosyncratic pattern of enduring, long-term characteristics, and a manner in which they interact with other individuals and the world around them. Almost every human behavior and mood is analysed by the biological perspective for its physiological origin. Mood-stabilizing drugs Mood stabilizing drugs are used to stabilize mood, like their name suggests.
Such feelings would be normal. The Humanistic Perspective Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century, drawing on the philosophies of existentialism and phenomenology, as well as Eastern philosophy. You can find a more in-depth look into the evolutionary perspective with our. Instead, our behavior is determined by the unconscious mind and childhood experiences. Investigation of inheritance: what an animal inherits from its parents, mechanisms of inheritance genetics. Each perspective has its strengths and weaknesses, and brings something different to our understanding of human behavior. It seeks to understand how our personalities and traits are the product of our genetic makeup and biological factors, and how they are shaped by our environment, including our parents, peers, and culture.
A psychologist who follows this perspective would look at introverted behavior as a result of genetics and biological processes, or past unrealized experiences, or social-cultural norms, or a combination of all three. The practice is based on the belief that every child has an individual capacity and style of learning that results from predisposition, experience, and development. Neo-Freudian Approaches Freud attracted many followers who modified his ideas to create new theories about personality. Nurture Are we who we are because of nature biology and genetics , or are we who we are because of nurture our environment and culture? Psychodynamic theory was born in 1874 with the works of German scientist Ernst von Brucke, who supposed that all living organisms are energy systems governed by the principle of the conservation of energy. Cognitive Approach In contrast to behaviorists, cognitive psychologists believe that your behavior is determined by your expectations and emotions. This perspective is a much more holistic approach to understanding behavior and attributes it to multiple causes rather than a specific approach like the other perspectives. The 11th-century Arabic writer Ibn al-Haytham Alhazen wrote the Treatise on the Influence of Melodies on the Souls of Animals, an early work dealing with the effects of music on animals.