Although the theories are not used explicitly today, due to their disadvantages or weaknesses, they can provide a guiding principle of positive approaches to management. Description of Theory Y Management influenced by this theory assumes that employees are ambitious, self-motivated and anxious to accept greater responsibility and exercise self-control, self-direction, autonomy and empowerment. They are inherently lazy, lack ambition and prefer to be directed on what to do rather than assume responsibility on their own. Principle of theory Y The central principle of Theory Y is that of integration: individuals can achieve their own goals by also focusing their efforts on the objectives of the organization they work for. Understanding the Theories Your management style is strongly influenced by your beliefs and assumptions about what motivates members of your.
The adjusted amount in column G is obtained by multiplying 5% to the net increase in column F. This situation hypothesised the lack of proper recovery of increased cost. Theory X, Theory Y by Douglas McGregor is a motivation theory. McGregor argued that the conventional approach to managing was based on three major propositions, which he called Theory X:. In fact, when the proper motivations and rewards are in place, employees are not only willing but purposely driven to seek out responsibility and challenges on their own. . An illustration showing how a contractor is reimbursed much amount for increased cost where the direct works proportion is higher than where it is lower is shown in a case study drawn in Table 1.
Management believes that employees enjoy their work. So the teacher administered a first short test, and weekly tests, to measure how much students might improve. Work is as natural as play or rest. While money may not be the most effective way to self-fulfillment, it may be the only way available. Furthermore, their tasks and how these should executed must be laid down in detail. Under Theory X employees need to be controlled and threatened to get them working.
The proportions of direct works and preliminaries and generals have been intentionally combined in the same Cartesian plan. Theory-X and Theory-Y Management Application-Business Implications for. Regarding motivation of employee in managerial, processes Douglas McGregor and Victor Vroom gave their view. The Assumptions of Douglas McGregor Much like a bomb, assumptions are a dangerous thing to make - just the slightest little mistake and you can end up blowing yourself up! As shown in Table 1, two contracts A and B have the same original contract amount of R600,000. Managers that subscribe to Theory X tend to take a rather pessimistic view of their employees. According to McGregor, an organization is built upon theory X notions will be one in which there is close supervision and control of subordinates and high centralization of authority. Given such a situation, contractual clauses have been formulated to cater for optimum recovery of cost escalations.
Theory X starts from the assumption that people are naturally lazy, want to avoid work as much as possible, do not wish to take responsibility, have no ambition and prefer to be supervised. View industrial sector in low developing as being very poor and inwhich industrialisation can be a great help to development butinstead they collect surplus for more developed countries'industries. Without developing a theory and testing it, she might have put all the students in a lower class and ignored the students' needs to learn the basic skills. But all people do not see motivation in the job. Or maybe you've lucked out and your superiors really encourage you to be yourself. In this process, employees are expected to exercise a large degree of internal motivation. Based on this, she assumed these students would have difficulty in basic skills.
Theory Y, is an advanced theory, wherein it is assumed that the workers are self-directed and self-motivated, for growth and development and takes active part in decision making. It is obvious that where the prime cost proportion is higher 89% the contractor gets much money R24,318 than where the prime cost proportion 11% is lower. This is more relevant in the workplace now than ever before, especially when management style is being scrutinised, and Leadership is becoming the preferred method of empowering employees, clients, colleagues and peers. Your rating is more than welcome or share this article via Social media! Theory Y leads to a preoccupation with the nature of relationships, with creating and environment which encourages commitment to organizational objectives and which provides opportunities for the maximum exercise of initiative, ingenuity and self-direction in achieving them. That motivation and improving profits are gradually recognized as challenges for managers in this economy sustained developing world. However, one person who seemed to be unafraid of self-inflicted explosions was Douglas McGregor, a behavior management theorist who was heavily influenced by both Abraham Maslow and the.
Work may be a source of satisfaction or punishment depending upon the controllable conditions. A series of experimental facts established the validity of the model. Theory-Y assumptions are: 1 physical and mental effort are natural and most people depending on the work environment find work to be a source of , 2 they generally, on their own , self-control, self-direction, , and ingenuity in pursuit of and collective company goals, 3 they either seek responsibility or learn to accept it willingly, and that 4 their full potential is not tapped in most organizations. A mix of practices which ensure a healthy blend of systems and the freedom to perform at the work place is likely to motivate the employees more. McGregor Theory X and Theory Y. These assumptions serve the purpose of predicting human behaviour may differ from one another because of the complexity of factors influencing human being. They are self-centered and care only about themselves and not the organization or its goals, making it necessary for a manager to coerce, control, direct or threaten with punishment in order to get them to work towards organizational goals.
What happens when a Y person is managed as an X person and vis versa…What are the common reactions. It is assumed that where the contractor's sum is lower, the contractor uses less of his resources for example, administration cost while revenues from management fees are higher. The managers influenced by Theory X believe that everything must end in blaming someone. Work Dislikes work Work is natural Ambition Little to no ambition Highly ambitious Responsibility Avoids responsibility. Cumulative net increased cost I 3.