However, the figure for white persons is still appreciably higher than for nonwhite persons; white males can expect to live sixty-three years as compared with fifty-two for Negro males, and white females sixty-seven years compared with fifty-five years for Negro females. South Carolina called a special session of the state legislature at which all state laws in any way regulating primaries were repealed. In 1947, the Presidential Committee on Civil Rights, created a year earlier, produced a report, To Secure These Rights, calling for the elimination of segregation. In September 1945, Truman presented to Congress a lengthy and rambling twenty-one point message that nonetheless attempted to set the post-war political and economic agenda. The two most involved staffers in the Truman administration, however, were Clark Clifford and John Steelman. White, Black, Latin, Asian, and American Indian all serve side-by-side with dedication and distinction. Individuals may be members of suspect organizations out of ignorance.
Before they moved into the project only one out of every 25 whites thought that race relations would turn out well, while five times as many felt that there would be nothing but conflict between the people of the two races. The theory governing this action was that by placing the primaries entirely outside the law and the structure of government the ruling in Smith v. In terms of time, 1945 to 1946 did not present Truman with many opportunities to advance the cause of — foreign policy dictated his agenda. Perhaps most important of all, we are not making use of one of the most effective techniques for educating the public to the practicability of American ideals as a way of life. In other words, it took the average Negro seven times as long as the average white to get a promotion, in spite of the fact that almost all of the variables which could affect promotion were exactly the same.
I am now presenting to the Congress my recommendations for legislation to carry us forward toward that goal…We shall not, however, finally achieve the ideals for which this Nation was founded so long as any American suffers discrimination as a result of his race, or religion, or color, or the land of origin of his forefathers…We cannot be satisfied until all our people have equal opportunities for jobs, for homes, for education, for health, and for political expression, and until all our people have equal protection under the law. In areas like Georgetown and the old fort sites, white residents and realtors have been buying up Negro properties and converting them to choice residential use. She retained strong and bitter memories of these things all of her life and impressed on her children, on her son, Harry, her animosity towards the North and toward Abraham Lincoln and all they stood for. In 1947 the white primary in South Carolina, resting on its new foundation, was held invalid by the United States District Court for the Eastern District of South Carolina in the case of Elmore v. We repeat that it would be a grievous mistake to misread this as meaning that there is nothing in our record of which to be proud.
The funeral ceremony occurred; the widow grieved; the mourners were present; it concluded; everyone left, but the casket was not yet lowered into the gravesite and an official of the Sioux City Memorial Park Cemetery asked a question. Prejudice in any area is an ugly, undemocratic phenomenon; in the armed services, where all men run the risk of death, it is particularly repugnant. At times this appears in unwarranted arrests, unduly prolonged detention before arraignment, and abuse of the search and seizure power. On the other hand, it should be noted that great strides have been made in the admission of minorities to unions. These include violent physical attacks by police officers on members of minority groups, the use of third degree methods to extort confessions, and brutality against prisoners.
While a case in the United States Supreme Court in 1926 was long believed to uphold the constitutional validity of restrictive covenants under the federal Constitution, this case has recently been challenged as a binding authority. This act was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1883, in the Civil Rights Cases. The Federal Government at this time recognised its responsibility to address racism in the country, and although there was little de facto change, it encouraged future administrations to strive for racial equality. The largest group of American residents presently subject to this discrimination are those born in Japan. And I think of him often from day-to-day as I listen to the news because President Truman had a lot of ideas that he wanted to pass into law. Uncle Will says that the Lord made the white man from dust, a nigger from mud, and he threw up what was left and it came down a Chinaman. And he went down there and the first time in 1947, when he was having a little bit of bad health and the doctor said find a nice warm place to go for a bit of vacation.
But he could not stay removed for long. Five months later, Truman issued an executive order making the program permanent. Truman employed this strategy in several ways. It has been made clear to the Committee that unfortunately, many public services, supplied by both government and private business, do not reach all persons on an equality of access basis. Did he feel that America could not claim to be the democratic capital of the world while African Americans were treated thus? We did not, therefore, devote ourselves to the construction of a balance sheet which would properly assess the great progress which the nation has made, as well as the shortcomings in the record. Malcolm, a young Negro, had been involved in a fight with his white employer during the course of which the latter had been stabbed.
We have not felt that it would be proper or feasible for this Committee to try to review all of the facts of the evacuation program. Arizona, California, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, Montana, New Mexico, and Oregon forbid or severely restrict land ownership by ineligible aliens. And it thanked Truman for all he had done to realize civil rights for all Americans. They voted for the party of Abraham Lincoln. And you have to think he did a lot of remarkable things. Yet the Committee believes that ways and means can be found of safeguarding people against mass accusations and discriminatory treatment. The record is not without its brighter side.
In Texas, it was almost three times as high for Latin as for Anglo infants. Now, an hour into the trip; the bus stopped. He was not accused of criminal or subversive conduct. The victims in these cases were not mutilated or burned. Walter White who is the head of the National Association for the Advancement of Color People was one of the people at this meeting. One out of every five white Americans speaks some language other than English in his home.
Although the federal government has exclusive jurisdiction over the Panama Canal Zone, a segregated way of life for Negroes and for whites exists. Painter, the last one, struck down the idea of a separate law school at the University of Texas. In one case, the victim was arrested on a charge of stealing a tire, taken to the courthouse, beaten by three officers with a blackjack until his head was a bloody pulp, and then dragged unconscious through the streets to the jail where he was thrown, dying, onto the floor. This committee was wholly successful, as it could make or break a company, and encouraged greatly the new equal stance on civil rights. The federal government has tolerated it even where it has full authority to eliminate it. No downtown theater except the burlesque house admits Negroes.
Furthermore, since the Negro schools are usually unsatisfactory, they are not suitable for community centers; thus, in 1937, about half of all the cities having Negro community centers were located in the North and West, despite the heavy concentration of Negro population in the South. The resistance to integration was so fierce in Arkansas that Eisenhower dispatched federal troops to Little Rock to force desegregation of public schools there. Those who do it will encounter quick retribution. Truman followed up on the report by sending Congress the first civil rights legislative program in the twentieth century on. The New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Connecticut statutes have strong enforcement provisions. He is the author of Black Ballots: Voting Rights in the South, 1944-1969; In Pursuit of Power: Southern Blacks and Electoral Politics, 1965-1982; Running for Freedom: Civil Rights and Black Politics in America Since 1941; and, with Charles Payne, Debating the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1968.