The mask, therefore, most often functions as a means of contact with various spirit powers, thereby protecting against the unknown forces of the universe by prevailing upon their potential beneficence in all matters relative to life. Some ceremonial or decorative masks were not designed to be worn. Archived from on 29 August 2012. South African man wearing pelts and beads during the Indlamu dance Lesson Summary African dance refers to many different dances traditionally found in Sub-Saharan Africa, which combine body movements, music and, at times, theatrical representations. Inuit groups vary widely and do not share a common mythology or language.
As cultural objects they have been used throughout the world in all periods since the Stone Age and have been as varied in appearance as in their use and symbolism. Those who perform the best gain social recognition as warriors and earn priority when choosing their future wives. Many of the masks and characters used in European festivals belong to the contrasting categories of the 'good', or 'idealised beauty', set against the 'ugly' or 'beastly' and grotesque. The popularity of the Medico della Peste among carnivale celebrants can be seen as a. The characters depicted are also prescribed by tradition and enact roles to achieve the desired ends.
African masks are also used in the Mas or Masquerade of the. Mask carvers still do exist, explains, although they are hidden away from the rest of society. A primary belief involved in both the conception and the rendering of these objects was that spirit power dwelled in all organic and inorganic matter, and therefore the mask will contain the spirit power of whatever material was used to make it. The localization of a particular spirit in a specific mask must be considered a highly significant reason for its existence. Their three main cults use seventy-eight different types of masks. Today, the masks are often more decorative. They can be examined in more detail on separate pages, see African Tribal Masks.
Korea A Korean mask worn by a performer Korean masks have a long tradition associated with shamanism and later in ritual dance. Often the messages are grunted utterances and the translator will accurately decipher the meaning of the message. As well as participating in trade, the Ijaw have traditionally been a fishing and farming culture. The bells on the necklaces are of the type believed capable of being heard by spirits, ringing in both worlds, that of the ancestors and the living. Volto Larva The larva, also called the volto mask, is mainly white, and typically Venetian. The dancer brings forth messages of wisdom from his ancestors. Lastly, in Africa like in Polynesia, scarification is more visible on darker skinned people than say, tattoos.
During the course of his work the unfinished piece must be kept out of sight or some of its power can be taken. Masquerades carry great religious and cultural significance for participants including the enthralled and connected audience. Masks employed in these ceremonies are highly ornamented, with jeweled and elaborately filigreed headgears. The stories are in part derived from ancient Sanskrit literature, especially the Hindu epics, although the Javanese later became Muslims. In ancient Roman burials, a mask resembling the deceased was often placed over his face or was worn by an actor hired to accompany the funerary cortege to the burial site. Formally they often emphasize the hideous. Carvers undergo many years of specialized apprenticeship until achieving mastery of the art.
The striking design has a macabre history originating from 17th century French physician who adopted the mask together with other sanitary precautions while treating victims The mask is white consisting of a hollow beak and round eye holes covered with crystal discs creating a bespectacled effect. Baule Masks The Baule people are a farming culture from the Ivory Coast in West Africa. Body painting is also a popular practice among many groups. They often represent supernatural spirits as well as ancestors and therefore have both a religious and a social significance. From the Middle Kingdom c.
The markings on the cheeks are representative of the decorative scars girls receive as they step into womanhood. The long shape of the buffalo head tilts downward when the mask is used. The original significance would have survived only until the introduction of which then incorporated many of the customs into its own traditions. Among some of the Dan and Ngere tribes of Liberia and Ivory Coast, ancestor masks with generic features act as intermediaries for the transmission of petitions or offerings of respect to the gods. The and definitions of mask usage frequently overlap and merge but still provide a useful basis for categorisation.
In modern revivals of ancient Greek plays, masks have occasionally been employed, and such highly symbolic plays as Die versunkene Glocke The Sunken Bell; 1897 by the German Gerhart Hauptmann 1862—1946 and dramatizations of Alice in Wonderland have required masks for the performers of grotesque or animal figures. Ray, Eskimo Masks: Art and Ceremony 1967 , one of the best studies of Eskimo masks, with many fine plates and a bibliography; F. Photos, images and text are protected by copyright 2001-2018 and may not be duplicated, copied, saved electronically or by other means except for personal use. Ceremonies as weddings, initiation rites and funerals have a masked dance. Masks in theatre Wikimedia Commons has media related to.
Paris: Editions Raymond Chabaud, 1989, p. They are often decorated with paints, cowrie shells, colored glass, nails, plant fibers, horns and metal pieces. Not until the late 19th and early 20th century were they seriously appreciated as art objects or studied as cultural artifacts. The African mask is a dramatic device enabling performers to stand apart from their everyday role in society and wearers are often chosen for special characteristics or qualities they have attained or been initiated into. Costumes and masks originally inspired by are frequently worn by members on Mardi Gras Day. For example, Bambara statuettes, such as the Chiwara, are used as spiritually charged objects during ritual. History The use of masks in or is a very ancient human practice across the world, although masks can also be worn for protection, in hunting, in sports, in feasts, or in wars — or simply used as ornamentation.
In many cultures throughout the world, a judge wears a mask to protect him from future recriminations. Holes were customarily drilled in the back so the mask might be hung or possibly worn. The Dogons are expert agriculturists and the antelope symbolizes a hard working farmer. Frequently the mask has a projecting wooden cylinder for a bill or a gourd stem cut with teeth for a snout. Not surprisingly their mask traditions are also often different, although their masks are often made out of driftwood, animal skins, bones, and feathers. After this period is over, the artist will take the tree home and begin to carve it into a mask or a figure.